Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein Biosynthesis and Related Genes in Mammalian Cells
In the late 1970s, Hiroh Ikezawa and Martin Low found that phosphatidylinositol (PI)- specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released membrane-bound hydrolases from the mammalian cell surface and predicted the presence of enzymes, which were anchored to the plasma membrane via PI. A number of researchers who studied Trypanosome brucei, which is a parasite causing a sleeping sickness, noticed that variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) were anchored to the surface membrane via lipids. These findings led to the discovery of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). In 1988, the first complete GPI structures for VSG and rat Thy1 were solved. Studies of T. brucei in which the activity for GPI biosynthesis is relatively high have described the biosynthesis pathway. Nevertheless, identification of enzymes and genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis pathway had been difficult and unsuccessful.
KeywordsLipid Raft Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Mutant Cell Line Variant Surface Glycoprotein Cell Lymphoma Cell Line
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.