Three-dimensional Imaging of the Manipulating Apparatus in the Lesser Panda and the Giant Panda
The unique manipulation mechanism has been morphologically examined in the lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) (Endo et al. 2001b). Since the manipulating radial sesamoid bone is weakly attached to the palm region, our data suggest that the lesser panda can adjust the supporting bar of the radial sesamoid bone during the seizing action. The lesser panda and the giant panda (Aliluropoda melanoleuca) have independently evolved a specialized manipulation mechanism using the radial sesamoid bone. The skillful manipulating system consists of a huge radial sesamoid bone in the giant panda, and this species can strongly seize bamboo stems unlike the lesser panda (Endo et al. 1999a, c, Endo et al. 2001a). Our results have clarified the parallel evolution of the extraordinary manipulating system in the lesser panda and the giant panda. However, the three-dimensional simulation of the radial sesamoid bone had not been undertaken in the lesser panda.
KeywordsGiant Panda Sesamoid Bone Radial Sesamoid Ailurus Fulgens
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beijing Zoo, Beijing University, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing Second Medical College, Beijing Natural History Museum, Shaanxi Zoology Institute (1986). Systematic anatomy and organ-histology. In: Morphology of the Giant panda. Science Press, Beijing, pp 148–152 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Davis DD (1964) The Giant panda. A morphological study of evolutionary mechanisms. In: Davis DD (ed) Fieldiana zoology memoirs, Vol. 3. Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, IL, pp 146–198, pp 41–124Google Scholar
- Gould SJ (1978) The panda’s peculiar thumb. Natural History 87:20–30Google Scholar
- Wood-Jones F (1939a) The forearm and manus of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, M.-Edw. with an account of the mechanism of its grasp. Proc Zool Soc Lond Ser B 109:113–129Google Scholar