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Three-dimensional Imaging of the Manipulating Apparatus in the Lesser Panda and the Giant Panda

  • Hideki Endo
  • Natsuki Hama
  • Nobuharu Niizawa
  • Junpei Kimura
  • Takuya Itou
  • Hiroshi Koie
  • Takeo Sakai

Abstract

The unique manipulation mechanism has been morphologically examined in the lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) (Endo et al. 2001b). Since the manipulating radial sesamoid bone is weakly attached to the palm region, our data suggest that the lesser panda can adjust the supporting bar of the radial sesamoid bone during the seizing action. The lesser panda and the giant panda (Aliluropoda melanoleuca) have independently evolved a specialized manipulation mechanism using the radial sesamoid bone. The skillful manipulating system consists of a huge radial sesamoid bone in the giant panda, and this species can strongly seize bamboo stems unlike the lesser panda (Endo et al. 1999a, c, Endo et al. 2001a). Our results have clarified the parallel evolution of the extraordinary manipulating system in the lesser panda and the giant panda. However, the three-dimensional simulation of the radial sesamoid bone had not been undertaken in the lesser panda.

Keywords

Giant Panda Sesamoid Bone Radial Sesamoid Ailurus Fulgens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hideki Endo
    • 1
  • Natsuki Hama
    • 2
  • Nobuharu Niizawa
    • 3
  • Junpei Kimura
    • 4
  • Takuya Itou
    • 5
  • Hiroshi Koie
    • 6
  • Takeo Sakai
    • 5
  1. 1.Section of Morphology, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  2. 2.Kobe Municipal Oji ZooHyogoJapan
  3. 3.Animal Medical Center, College of Bioresource SciencesNihon UniversityKanagawaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary MedicineSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  5. 5.Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, College of Bioresource SciencesNihon UniversityKanagawaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Bioresource SciencesNihon UniversityKanagawaJapan

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