Advertisement

Anatomical Peculiarities of the Vocal Tract in Felids

  • Gerald E. Weissengruber
  • Gerhard Forstenpointner
  • Sandra Petzhold
  • Claudia Zacha
  • Sibylle Kneissl

Abstract

The fourty species (Wilson and Reeder 2005) of felids (family Felidae) are all strictly carnivorous and perfectly designed to capture live prey. The family is divided into two subfamilies, i.e., the Felinae and the Pantherinae (Wilson and Reeder 2005). The majority of adult felids live and hunt separately (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002). Besides other morphological adaptations to hunting (e.g., structure of the vertebral column or the limbs) cats possess a foreshortened face, powerful jaw muscles, strong canines and secodont molars but the number of teeth is less than in other carnivores like dogs or bears (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002). Felids vary enormously in size. Large size differences within a particular species are found in species with broad geographic distributions (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002). Although most of the cat species are solitary, felids use visual signals (e.g., cheek rubbing), odours (secretions from various glands, saliva, urine, faeces) and a variety of vocalizations for communication within a certain social system (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002).

Keywords

Vocal Tract Fallow Deer Owen 1835 Snow Leopard Clouded Leopard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barone R, Lombard M (1967) Ľapparell digestif du lion. Bull Soc Sci Vet Et Med Comparee Lyon 69:297–306Google Scholar
  2. Fitch WT, Reby D (2001) The descended larynx is not uniquely human. Proc Royal Soc Lond B 268:1669–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frazer Sissom DE, Rice DA, Peters G (1991) How cats purr. J Zool 223:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hast MH (1986) The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats. J Anat 149:221–222Google Scholar
  5. Hast MH (1989) The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats. J Anat 163:117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Luckhaus G (1969) Vergleichend-anatomische Betrachtungen über den Pharynx des Löwen. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin A 16:240–256Google Scholar
  7. McElligott AG, Birrer M, Vannoni E (2006) Retraction of the mobile descended larynx during groaning enables fallow bucks (Dama dama) to lower their formant frequencies. J Zool 270:340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Owen R (1835) On the anatomy of the cheetah, Felis jubata, Schreb. Trans Zool Soc London 1:129–136Google Scholar
  9. Peters G (1981) Das Schnurren der Katzen (Felidae). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 29:30–37Google Scholar
  10. Peters G (2002) Purring and similar vocalizations in mammals. Mammal Rev 32:245–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Peters G, Hast MH (1994) Hyoid structure, laryngeal anatomy, and vocalizations in felids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae). Z Säugetierkunde 59:87–104Google Scholar
  12. Peters G, Tonkin-Leyhausen BA (1999) Evolution of acoustic communication signals of mammals: Friendly close-range vocalizations in felids. J Mammal Evol 6:129–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pocock RI (1916) On the hyoidean apparatus of the lion (F. leo) and related species of Felidae. Ann Mag Nat Hist Zool Bot Geol 8:222–229Google Scholar
  14. Pocock RI (1917) The classification of existing Felidae. Ann Mag Nat Hist 119:329–350Google Scholar
  15. Schaller O (1992) Illustrated veterinary anatomical nomenclature. Ferdinand Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  16. Sunquist M, Sunquist F (2002) Wild cats of the world. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  17. Shiba K, Umezaki T, Zheng Y, Miller AD (1997a) The nucleus retroambigualis controls laryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat. Exp Brain Res 115:513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shiba K, Yoshida K, Nakajima Y, Konno A (1997b) Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat. Neurosci Res 27:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Weissengruber GE, Forstenpointner G, Peters G, Kübber-Heiss A, Fitch WT (2002) Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus). J Anat 201:195–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wilson DE, Reeder DM (2005) Mammal species of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, CTGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald E. Weissengruber
    • 1
  • Gerhard Forstenpointner
    • 1
  • Sandra Petzhold
    • 1
  • Claudia Zacha
    • 1
  • Sibylle Kneissl
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AnatomyUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaWienAustria
  2. 2.Clinic for Diagnostic ImagingUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations