Ecology and conservation of an endangered willow, Salix hukaoana

  • Wajiro Suzuki
  • Satoshi Kikuchi


Several riverine willow (Salix) species are known to occur in the floodplains of rivers in Japan. These willow species are characterized by their unique life-history features, as well as by the conditions of the habitats they occupy, e.g., soil texture and moisture, light conditions, and so on. These willow species often constitute typical riparian forests over open floodplains, representing important elements at the early stages of ecological succession (Ishikawa 1983, Ishikawa 1988; Niiyama 1987; Yoshikawa & Fukushima 1999). These Salix species have obviously adapted to changing riparian habitats, such as flooding caused by snow melting and typhoons with heavy rainfalls, since they can maintain their populations in such extremely changing environments. (Niiyama 2002).


Riparian Forest Floristic Composition Riparian Habitat Ecological Succession Forest Product Research Institute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ban N, Ide Y (2004) Life historical traits of Salix hukaoana along Yubiso River. Bull Tokyo Univ Forests 112:35–43 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  2. Ishikawa S (1983) Ecological studies on the floodplain vegetation in the Tohoku and Hokkaido Districts, Japan. Ecol Rev 20:73–114Google Scholar
  3. Ishikawa S (1988) Floodplain vegetation of the Ibi River in central Japan. I. Distribution behavior and habitat conditions of the main species of river bed vegetation developing on the alluvial fan. Jpn J Ecol 38:73–84 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  4. Japanese Ministry of Environment, Wild life Management Section, (2000) Red-data plants in Japan. Japanese Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo 662p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. Kimura A (1973) Salicis nava species ex regione Okutonensi in Japonia. J Jpn Bot 48:321–326Google Scholar
  6. Kimura A (1974) De Salie is Hukaoanae Kimura systematico positu. J Jap Bot 49:46Google Scholar
  7. Kimura A (1989) Salicaceae. In: Satake Y, Hara H, Watari S, Tominari T (eds) Wild flowers of Japan. Heibon-sha, Tokyo, pp 31–51 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Miyawaki A (1987) Vegetation of Japan, Tohoku. Shibundo, Tokyo, 605pp (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Niiyama K (1987) Distribution of Salicaceous species and soil texture of habitats along the Tokachi River. Jpn J Ecol 37:168–174 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  10. Niiyama K (2002) Floodplain Forests, In: Sakio H, Yamamoto F (eds) Ecology of Riparian Forests. Univ Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 61–93 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Ohashi H, Kikuchi S, Sashimura N, Fujiwara R (2007) Distribution of Salix hukaoana Kimura (Salicaceae). J Jpn Bot 82:242–244Google Scholar
  12. Sakio H, Suzuki W (1997) Overview of riparian vegetation: Structure, ecological function and effect of erosion control works. J Jpn Soc Erosion Control Eng 49:40–48 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Shin N, Ishikawa S, Iwata S (1999) The mosaic structure of riparian forests and its formation pattern along the Azusa River, Kamikouchi, central Japan. Jpn J Ecol 49:71–81 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  14. Silvertown JW, Lovett Doust J (1993) Introduction to plant population biology. Blackwell Sci Pub, Oxford, 210pGoogle Scholar
  15. Suzuki W, Kikuchi S (2006) Floristic composition and stand structure of riparian forests in the Tadami River basin, and the ecological distribution of an endangered tree, Salix hukaoana. Jpn J Conserv Ecol 11:85–93 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  16. Takehara A (1995) Willow communities and the distribution of S. hukaoana in the upper reaches of the Waga River, Northern Honshu, Japan. Ann Rep Natural History 1:11–21 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Takehara A. and Naito T. (1986) Salix hukaoana Kimura, newly found in Miyagi Pref. in northeastern Honshu. J Jpn Bot 61:127–128Google Scholar
  18. Tsukada M (1974) Paleoichnology II. Kyoritsu Shuppan, Tokyo, 231 p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Yoshikawa M, Fukushima T (1999) Distribution and developmental patterns of floodplain Salicaceae family communities along the Kinu River, central Japan. Veg Sci 16:25–37 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wajiro Suzuki
    • 1
  • Satoshi Kikuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations