Integrated Pest Management of Pine Wilt Disease in Japan: Tactics and Strategies
In 1971, the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was found to be the causal agent of pine wilt disease in Japan and it was shown that the vector is the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus. Pine wilt is the most serious forest disease in Japan and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Here I review the tactics and strategies that have been developed for managing this extremely serious tree disease. Several strategies must be combined to manage epidemics of infectious plant diseases as is done for human diseases. These strategies are: (1) reduce the reservoirs of infection, (2) isolate the hosts from the pathogen and (3) increase the resistance of host populations. There are several ways to carry out these strategies. The most effective is to decrease reservoirs of infection and eradication of pine trees killed by pine wilt, referred to here as “diseased trees”. Control of vector insects is an effective way to isolate susceptible host trees from the pathogen. Concerning an increase in host resistance, susceptible pine trees can be replaced with resistant pines or other tree species. Another technique is to inject a nematicide into the trunks of susceptible pines. Each of these practices is called a control tactic. In contrast, a control strategy is a combination of several tactics.
KeywordsForest Owner Dead Tree Urban Park Pine Wilt Disease Pine Wood Nematode
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.