Soon after Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) was shown to be the causative agent of pine wilt in Japan a pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, was identified as its vector (Mamiya and Enda 1972; Morimoto and Iwasaki 1972). Later, in the USA, M. carolinensis was recognized as the primary vector of the PWN (Kondo et al. 1982; Wingfield and Blanchette 1983). Following these discoveries biological studies began on M. alternatus and M. carolinensis.


Insect Vector Adult Beetle Spread Pattern Pine Wilt Disease Pine Wood Nematode 

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