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Recognition of Pathogens: Toll-Like Receptors

  • Satoshi Uematsu
  • Shizuo Akira

Abstract

The innate immune response is the first line of defense against microbial infections. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionally conserved and recognize specific components of pathogens including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Recognition of microbial components by TLRs triggers activation of signal transduction pathways, which then induces dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production, resulting in development of adaptive immunity. Each TLR has its intrinsic signaling pathway and induces specific biological responses against microorganisms. Here, we discuss the rapidly accumulating members of the TLR family, their functions and signaling mechanisms.

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus West Nile Virus Pathogen Recognition Toll Pathway Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Uematsu
    • 1
  • Shizuo Akira
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial DiseasesOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.ERATOJapan Science and Technology CorporationOsakaJapan

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