Advertisement

Fatigue: Epidemiology and Social/Industrial Aspects

  • Birgitta Evengård

Abstract

There is no doubt that the symptoms of fatigue are costly for both society and for the individual. Fatigue is found in a spectrum of diseases and illnesses caused by pathology in biological systems, but also by environmental factors which directly or indirectly influence biological systems in the human body. Although it has been known for a long time that more women than men suffer from this group of illnesses, little research has focused on the influence of gender, e.g., the circumstances which women and men live under, on the outcome of fatigue-related health problems. The complex interaction between different regulatory systems connecting body, soul, and mind is clearer today as molecular techniques are being developed. Data on a genetic linkage to chronic fatigue have also been established.

Keywords

Sick Leave Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Latent Class Analysis Negative Life Event Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reynolds KJ, Vernon SD, Bouchery E, et al. (2004) The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome. Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2:4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asbring P, Narvanen AL (2003) Ideal versus reality: physicians perspectives on patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia. Soc Sci Med 57:711–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bottiger LE (1967) [Fatigue: the incapacity to continue]. Lakartidningen 64:984–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones JF, Kohl KS, Ahmadipour N, Bleijenberg G, Buchwald D, Evengard B, Jason LA, Klimas NG, Lloyd A, McCleary K, Oleske JM, White PD; The Brighton Collaboration Fatigue Working Group (2007) Fatigue: Case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. March 12: Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lewis G, Wessely S (1992) The epidemiology of fatigue: more questions than answers. J Epidemiol Community Health 46:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jason LA, Richman JA, Rademaker AW, et al. (1999) A community-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Intern Med 159:2129–2137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reyes M, Nisenbaum R, Hoaglin DC, et al. (2003) Prevalence and incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome in Wichita, Kansas. Arch Intern Med 163:1530–1536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lindal E, Stefansson JG, Bergmann S (2002) The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in Iceland: a national comparison by gender drawing on four different criteria. Nord J Psychiatr 56:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evengard B, Jacks A, Pedersen NL, et al. (2005) The epidemiology of chronic fatigue in the Swedish Twin Registry. Psychol Med 35:1317–1326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demitrack MA (1997) Neuroendocrine correlates of chronic fatigue syndrome: a brief review. J Psychiatr Res 31:69–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kerr JR, Christian P, Hodgetts A, et al. (2006) Current research priorities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): disease mechanisms, a diagnostic test and specific treatments. J Clin Pathol Aug 25, Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Steinau M, Unger ER, Vernon SD, et al. (2004) Differential-display PCR of peripheral blood for biomarker discovery in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Mol Med 82:750–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Evengard B, Jonzon E, Sandberg A, et al. (2003) Differences between patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and with chronic fatigue at an infectious disease clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 57:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beard GM (1869) Neurasthenia, or nervous exhaustion. Boston Med Surg J 80:217–221Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holmes GP, Kaplan JE, Gantz NM, et al. (1988) Chronic fatigue syndrome: a working case definition. Ann Intern Med 108:387–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fukuda K, Straus SE, Hickie I, et al. (1994) The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. Ann Intern Med 121:953–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reeves WC, Lloyd A, Vernon SD, et al. (2003) Identification of ambiguities in the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome research case definition and recommendations for resolution. BMC Health Serv Res 3:25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Evengard B, Schacterle RS, Komaroff AL (1999) Chronic fatigue syndrome: new insights and old ignorance. J Intern Med 246:455–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Evengard B, Klimas N (2002) Chronic fatigue syndrome: probable pathogenesis and possible treatments. Drugs 62:2433–2446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wessely S (1997) Chronic fatigue syndrome: a 20th century illness? Scand J Work Environ Health 23Suppl 3:17–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klimas NG, Salvato FR, Morgan R, et al. (1990) Immunologic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 28:1403–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krupp LB, Jandorf L, Coyle PK, et al. (1993) Sleep disturbance in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Psychosom Res 37:325–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lloyd AR, Wakefield D, Boughton C, et al. (1988) What is myalgic encephalomyelitis? Lancet 1:1286–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abbey SE, Garfinkel PE (1991) Neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome: the role of culture in the making of a diagnosis. Am J Psychiatr 148:1638–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25a.
    Sharpe MC, Archard LC, Banatvala JE, et al. (1991) A report. Chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research. J R Soc Med 84:118–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25b.
    Theorell T, Blomkvist V, Lindh G, et al. (1999) Critical life events, infections, and symptoms during the year preceding chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): an examination of CFS patients and subjects with a nonspecific life crisis. Psychosom Med 61:304–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    White PD, Thomas JM, Amess J, et al. (1995) The existence of a fatigue syndrome after glandular fever. Psychol Med 25:907–916; http://www.scb.se PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27a.
    Fischler B (1999) Review of clinical and psychobiological dimensions of the chronic fatigue syndrome: differentiation from depression and contribution of sleep dysfunctions. Sleep Med Rev 3:131–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27b.
    Katon WJ, Buchwald DS, Simon GE, et al. (1991) Psychiatric illness in patients with chronic fatigue and those with rheumatoid arthritis. J Gen Intern Med 6:277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Lindal E, Bergmann S, Thorlacius S, et al. (1997) Anxiety disorders: a result of long-term chronic fatigue. The psychiatric characteristics of the sufferers of Iceland disease. Acta Neurol Scand 96:158–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Skapinakis P, Lewis G, Meltzer H (2003) Clarifying the relationship between unexplained chronic fatigue and psychiatric morbidity: results from a community survey in Great Britain. Int Rev Psychiatr 15:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    Wessely S, Powell R (1989) Fatigue syndromes: a comparison of chronic “postviral” fatigue with neuromuscular and affective disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 52:940–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    Grans H, Nilsson P, Evengard B (2005) Gene expression profiling in the chronic fatigue syndrome. J Intern Med 258:388–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    Kaushik N, Fear D, Richards SC, et al. (2005) Gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Pathol 58:826–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Vernon SD, Unger ER, Dimulescu IM, et al. (2002) Utility of the blood for gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery in chronic fatigue syndrome. Dis Markers 18:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    Whistler T, Unger ER, Nisenbaum R, et al. (2003) Integration of gene expression, clinical, and epidemiologic data to characterize chronic fatigue syndrome. J Transl Med 1:10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    Richman JA, Jason LA, Taylor RR, et al. (2000) Feminist perspectives on the social construction of chronic fatigue syndrome. Health Care Women Int 21:173–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    Sullivan PF, Pedersen NL, Jacks A, et al. (2005) Chronic fatigue in a population sample: definitions and heterogeneity. Psychol Med 35:1337–1348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    Jason LA, Corradi K, Torres-Harding S, et al. (2005) Chronic fatigue syndrome: the need for subtypes. Neuropsychol Rev 15:29–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Sullivan P, Evengard B, Jacks A, Pedersen N (2005) Twin analysis of chronic fatigue in a Swedish national sample. Psychol Med 35:1327–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 39.
    Vernon SD, Reeves WC (2006) The challenge of integrating disparate high-content data: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data collected during an in-hospital study of chronic fatigue syndrome. Pharmacogenomics 7(3):345–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Kato K, Sullivan PF, Evengård B, Pedersen NL. Premorbid predictors of chronic fatigue. Arch Gen Psychiatr, in pressGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Gräns H, Nilsson M, Dahlman-Wright K, Evengard B (2006) Levels of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and betacx mRNA in Swedish patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Pathol May 26, EpubGoogle Scholar
  44. 42.
    Rajeevan MS, Smith AK, Dimulescu I, Unger ER, Vernon SD, Heim C, Reeves WC (2006) Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Genes Brain Behav Jun 1, EpubGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    Gupta S, Aslakson E, Gorbaxani BH, Vernon SD (2002) Inclusion of the glucocorticoid receptor in a hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis model reveals bistability. Theor Biol Med Model Feb 14;4:8Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Surawy C, Hackmann A, Hawton K, et al. (1995) Chronic fatigue syndrome: a cognitive approach. Behav Res Ther 33:535–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Rimes KA, Chalder T (2005) Treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome. Occup Med (London) 55:32–39; Science (2006) 312:669–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Birgitta Evengård
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical MicrobiologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations