How does one distinguish benign from malignant renal cysts clinically? Which renal neoplasms are characterized by cyst formation?
Renal cysts are common. According to a recent ultrasonographic study, they are seen in 14% of men and 8% of women in the general population. Clinically important disease categories include multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, cystic nephroma (multilocular cyst), mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) arising in dialysis-associated acquired renal cystic disease. Among these disease entities, partially differentiated nephroblastoma is a disease of the pediatric population under the age of 24 months and is curative after complete resection. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumors are benign, affect predominantly women, and are exceptional before the age of 30. There has been controversy whether these two are a single entity with different histologic manifestations. Studies by several groups have indicated that this is indeed the case.
KeywordsRenal Cell Carcinoma Hepatocyte Growth Factor Stromal Tumor Renal Cyst Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma
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