How does the tumor thrombus in the renal vein or inferior vena cava and its level of extension affect the prognosis of renal cancer?
Tumor extension into the renal vein or the inferior vena cava signifies an unfavorable prognosis because it is frequently associated with other adverse prognostic factors including large tumor size, perirenal invasion, regional lymph node involvement (N), and distant metastasis (M). After adjusting for N and M status, the level of thrombus extension in the inferior vena cava is negatively associated with the prognosis. The Mayo group proposed a new classification scheme for the T3 category by combining the level of thrombus and perirenal extension of the renal cell carcinoma.
KeywordsRenal Cell Carcinoma Inferior Vena Renal Vein Tumor Thrombus Adverse Prognostic Factor
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