What immunohistochemical markers are useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer?


The primary purpose of using the immunohistochemical staining technique is to rule in or rule out carcinoma primarily in a prostate needle core biopsy (PNB) specimen. Two types of markers are available. The first is basal cell-specific markers including high-molecular-weight cytokeratins (34βE12) and nuclear protein p63. The use of immunohistochemical markers for basal cells is justified on the premise that cancerous acini lack basal cells. The second type of marker is cancer-specific α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), which is overexpressed in adenocarcinoma cells and to lesser degree in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This marker exhibits high sensitivity and specificity for carcinoma cells of the prostate. A cocktail of two antibodies (AMACR and 34βE12), which may increase the accuracy of the diagnosis, is recommended.


Prostate Cancer Basal Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Layer Basal Cell Hyperplasia 
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