Advertisement

Indoor Air Pollution and Airway Disease

  • Sara Maio
  • Marzia Simoni
  • Sandra Baldacci
  • Duane Sherrill
  • Giovanni Viegi
Part of the Allergy Frontiers book series (ALLERGY, volume 1)

A good quality of indoor environment (dwellings, workplaces, schools, day care centers, bars, and discotheques) is a very important environment and health target, in so far as subjects in industrialized countries spend over 90% of their time indoors [1].

The quality of indoor environments depends on the quality of the atmospheric air that penetrates from outdoors and on the presence of indoor air pollution sources. Modern dwellings are often thermally insulated and have a low ventilation rate, to improve energy efficiency [1], but these aspects can deteriorate the indoor air quality. Indeed, pollutants are less diluted indoors than outdoors, possibly reaching higher concentrations. Moreover, the indoor environment is a result of the interaction between building system, construction techniques and materials, contaminant sources, and building occupants [2].

Keywords

Indoor Environment Allergy Clin Immunol Environmental Tobacco Smoke House Dust Mite Nitrogen Dioxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Richardson G, Eick S, Jones R (2005) How is the indoor environment related to asthma? Literature review. J Adv Nurs 52:328–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Association (EFA) (2004) Towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe. EFA, Brussels. http://www.efanet.org. Accessed May 2007
  3. 3.
    Bruce N, Perez-Padilla R, Albalak R (2000) Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. Bull World Health Organ 78:1078–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ezzati M, Kammen DM (2002) The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solID fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs. Environ Health Perspect 110:1057–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith KR, Mehta S, Maeusezahl-Feuz M (2004) Indoor air-pollution from household solID fuel use. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, et al. (eds) Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 1435–1493Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailis R, Ezzati M, Kammen DM (2005) Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science 308:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mi Y-H, Norback D, Tao J, et al. (2006) Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai, China: influence of building ventilation, nitrogen dioxIDe, ozone, and formaldehyde in classrooms. Indoor Air 16:454–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simoni M, Baldacci S, Puntoni R, et al. (2007) Respiratory symptoms/diseases and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in never smoker Italian women. Respir Med 101:531–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arif AA, Shah SM (2007) Association between personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and asthma among US adult population. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80(8):711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davey G, Vennw A, Belete H, et al. (2005) Wheeze, allergic sensitization and geohelminth infection in Butajira, Ethiopia. Clin Exp Allergy 35:301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Quackenboss JJ, Krzyzanowski M, Lebowitz MD (1991) Exposure assessment approaches to evaluate respiratory health effects of particulate matter and NO2. J Expo Anal Environ EpIDemiol 1:83–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baker RJ, Picciotto IH, Dostál M, et al. (2006) Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 Years of age. Environ Health Perspect 114:1126–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim JL, Elfman L, Mi Y, et al. (2007) Indoor molds, bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds and plasticizers in schools: associations with asthma and respiratory symptoms in pupils. Indoor Air 17:153–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Viegi G, Annesi-Maesano I (1999) Lung diseases induced by indoor and outdoor pollutants. In: Mapp CE (ed) Occupational lung disorders. Eur Respir Mon 11:214–241Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Svanes C, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, et al. (2003) Pet-keeping in childhood and adult asthma and hay fever: European Community Respiratory Health Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:289–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whitaker DA, Fortmann RC, Lindstrom AB (1995) Development and testing of a whole air sampler for measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. J Expo Anal Environ EpIDemiol 5:89–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ezzati M (2005) Indoor air pollution and health in developing countries. Lancet 366:104–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samet JM, Utell MJ (1991) The environment and the lung. JAMA 266:670–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singer BC, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, et al. (2006) Cleaning products and air freshners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoIDs. Indoor Air 16:179–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kotzias D, Geiss O, Tirendi S (2005) Evaluation of total exposure to benzene and formaldehyde in the European countries. EpIDemiol Prev 29:17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bardana EJ Jr. (2001) Indoor pollution and its impact on respiratory health. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 87:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Sources of indoor air pollution-respirable particles. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html. Site last updated 22 May 2007
  23. 23.
    Global Initiative for Asthma (2006) Updated 2006. http://www.ginasthma.com
  24. 24.
    Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N (2001) Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:1s–334s. http://www.whiar.org Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carayol N, Birnbaum J, Magnan A, et al. (2000) Feld 1 production in the cat skin varies according to anatomical sites. Allergy 55:570–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Annesi-Maesano I, Agabiti N, Pistelli R, et al. (2003) Subpopulations at increased risk of adverse health outcomes from air pollution. Eur Respir J 21(suppl 40):57s–63sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shima M, Adachi M (2000) Effect of outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxIDe on respiratory symptoms in school children. Int J EpIDemiol 29:862–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simoni M, Scognamiglio A, Carrozzi L, et al. (2004) Indoor exposures and acute respiratory effects in two general population samples from a rural and an urban area in Italy. J Expo Anal Environ EpIDemiol 14:144s–152sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Simoni M, Carrozzi L, Baldacci S, et al. (2002) The Po river delta (North Italy) epIDemiologi-cal study: effect of pollutant exposure on acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in adults. Arch Environ Health 57:130–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim CS, Lim YW, Yang JY, et al. (2002) Effects of indoor CO2 concentrations on wheezing attacks in children. Proc Indoor Air 1:492–497Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rabinovitch N, Strand M, Gelfand EW (2006) Particulate levels are associated with early asthma worsening in children with persistent disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1098–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weichenthal S, Dufresne A, Infante-Rivard C (2007) Indoor ultrafine particles and childhood asthma: exploring a potential public health concern. Indoor Air 17:81–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Viegi G, Simoni M, Scognamiglio A, et al. (2004) Indoor air pollution and airway disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:1401–1415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ekici A, Ekici M, Kurtipek E, et al. (2005) Obstructive airway diseases in women exposed to biomass smoke. Environ Res 99:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qian Z, He Q, Kong L, et al. (2007) Respiratory responses to diverse indoor combustion air pollution sources. Indoor Air 17:135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    DavID GL, Koh WP, Lee HP, et al. (2005) Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Thorax 60:1052–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang TN, Ko YC, Chao YY, et al. (1999) Association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and adolescent asthma from 1995 to 1996 in Taiwan. Environ Res 81:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Agabiti N, Mallone S, Forastiere F, et al. (1999) The impact of parental smoking on asthma and wheezing. SIDRIA Collaborative Group. Studi Italiani sui Disturbi Respiratori nell'Infanzia e l'Ambiente. EpIDemiology 10:692–698Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hill SH, Blakely T, Kawachi I, et al. (2007) Mortality among lifelong nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke at home: cohort data and sensitivity analyses. Am J EpIDemiol 165:530–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rumchev KB, Spickett JT, Bulsara MK, et al. (2002) Domestic exposure to formaldehyde significantly increases the risk of asthma in young children. Eur Respir J 20:403–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weschler CJ, Wells JR, Poppendieck D, et al. (2006) Workgroup report: indoor chemistry and health. Environ Health Perspect 114:442–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Medina-Ramon M, Zock JP, Kogevinas M, et al. (2003) Asthma symptoms in women employed in domestic cleaning: a community based study. Thorax 58:950–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Medina-Ramón M, Zock JP, Kogevinas M, et al. (2006) Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners. Eur Respir J 27:1196–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sherriff A, Farrow A, Golding J, et al. (2005) Frequent use of chemical household products is associated with persistent wheezing in pre-school age children. Thorax 60:45–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yuen APW, Cheung S, Tang KC, et al. (2007) The skin prick test results of 977 patients suffering from chronic rhinitis in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J 13:131–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miraglia Del Giudice M, Pedulla M, Piacentini GL, et al. (2002) Atopy and house dust mite sensitization as risk factors for asthma in children. Allergy 57:169–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wong GW, Li ST, Hui DS, et al. (2002) IndivIDual allergens as risk factors for asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in Chinese children. Eur Respir J 19:288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jaen A, Sunyer J, Basagana X, et al. on behalf of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2002) Specific sensitization to common allergens and pulmonary function in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Clin Exp Allergy 32:1713–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Skorge TD, Eagan TML, EIDe GE, et al. (2005) Indoor exposures and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample. Thorax 60:937–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oberle D, von Mutius E, von Kries R (2003) Childhood asthma and continuous exposure to cats since the first Year of life with cats allowed in the child's bedroom. Allergy 58:1033–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Perzanowski MS, Ronmark E, Platts-Mills TA, et al. (2002) Effect of cat and dog ownership on sensitization and development of asthma among pre-teenage children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:696–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oryszczyn MP, Annesi-Maesano I, Charpin D, et al. (2003) Allergy markers in adults in relation to the timing of pet exposure: the EGEA study. Allergy 58:1136–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Apelberg BJ, Aoki Y, Jaakkola JJK (2001) Systematic review: exposure to pets and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:455–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Almqvist C, van Hage-Hamsten M (2003) Cat and dog allergens: can intervention studies solve their inscrutable rIDdle? Clin Exp Allergy 33:1167–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rogers L, Cassino C, Berger KI, et al. (2002) Asthma in the elderly: cockroach sensitization and severity of airway obstruction in elderly nonsmokers. Chest 122:1580–1586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Silva JM, Camara AA, Tobias KRC, et al. (2005) A prospective study of wheezing in young children: the independent effects of cockroach exposure, breast-feeding and allergic sensitiza-tion. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 16:393–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Salam MT, Li YF, Langholz B, et al. (2004) Children's health study. Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma: findings from the Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 112:760–765Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    De Vera MJ, Drapkin S, Moy JN (2003) Association of recurrent wheezing with sensitivity to cockroach allergen in inner-city children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 91:455–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Simoni M, Lombardi E, Berti G, et al. (2005) Mould/dampness exposure at home is associated with respiratory disorders in Italian children and adolescents: the SIDRIA-2 Study. Occup Environ Med 62:616–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    American Thoracic Society. Achieving healthy indoor air. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156 (Part 2):33s–64sGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    World Health Organization (2005) Air quality guIDelines global update. Report on a working group meeting, Bonn, Germany, 18–20 October 2005Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Franchi M, Carrer P, Kotzias D, et al. (2006) Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe. Allergy 61:864–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rollin HB, Mathee A, Bruce N, et al. (2004) Comparison of indoor air quality in electrified and un-electrified dwellings in rural South African villages. Indoor Air 14:208–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mestl HES, Aunan K, Seip HM (2007) Health benefits from reducing indoor air pollution from household solID fuel use in China: three abatement scenarios. Environ Int 33(6):831–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Akunne AF, Louis VR, Sanon M, et al. (2006) Biomass solID fuel and acute respiratory infections: the ventilation factor. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:445–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Maio
    • 1
  • Marzia Simoni
    • 1
  • Sandra Baldacci
    • 1
  • Duane Sherrill
    • 2
  • Giovanni Viegi
    • 1
  1. 1.Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology UnitCNR Institute of Clinical PhysiologyPisaItaly
  2. 2.College of Public HealthUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations