Neurobehavioral Changes Following Cerebral Ischemia and Treatment by a TRH Derivative

  • Akira Tamura
  • Makoto Hirakawa
  • Keiji Sano


Multiple symptoms including reduced spontaneous activity, hemiparesis, and cognitive disturbance are frequently observed in the chronic phase of cerebral vascular diseases in humans. For investigating pathogenesis and drug therapy in the chronic phase of cerebral vascular diseases, it is important to observe the long-term functional consequences in a model of focal cerebral ischemia. Pathological and functional changes including neurological deficits, cognitive disturbances, brain edema, decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolism, and catecholamine levels after focal cerebral ischemia have been well documented in animals. However, most of these changes were observed only in the acute phase and few reports are available concerning the long-term functional consequences of focal cerebral ischemia [1].


Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Focal Cerebral Ischemia Dark Compartment Passive Avoidance Task Left Middle Cerebral Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Robinson RG (1979) Differential behavioral and biochemical effects of right and left hemispheric cerebral infarction in the rat. Science 205: 707–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tamura A, Graham DI, McCulloch J, Teasdale GM (1981) Focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat: I. Description of technique and early neuropathological consequences following middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1: 53–60Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tamura A, Gotoh O, Sano K (1986) Focal cerebral infarction in the rat: I. Operative technique and physiological monitoring for chronic model. Brain and Nerve (Tokyo) 38: 747–751.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamamoto M, Tamura A, Kirino T, Shimizu M, Sano K (1988) Behavioral changes after focal cerebral ischemia by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Brain Res 452: 323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jarvik ME, Kopp A (1967) An improved one-trial passive avoidance learning situation. Psychol Rep 21: 221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuribara H, Tadokoro S (1984) Conditioned lever-press avoidance response in mice: Acquisition processes and effects of diazepam. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 82: 36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuribara H, Tadokoro S (1985) Effects of psychoactive drugs on conditioned avoidance response in Mongolian gerbils (Moriones unguiculatus): Comparison with Wister rats and dd mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 23: 1013–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yamazaki N, Shintani M, Saji Y, Nagawa Y (1985) Effect of TRH and its analog DN-1417 on anoxia-induced amnesia in mice. Yakubutsu Seishin Kodo 5: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yasuhara N, Naito H (1983) Effects of TRH-T and DN-1417 on the central nervous system: An electrophysiological study of arousal reaction and evoked muscular discharges. Int J Neurosci 21: 197–224Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamamoto M, Shimizu M (1987) Facilitative effects of a new TRH analogue, YM14673 on the central nervous system. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 336: 561–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tamura A, Gotoh O, Sano K, Nagashima T, Matsutani M, Orii H, Graham DI (1986) Focal cerebral infarction in the rat: 2. Neuropathological study and local cerebral blood flow pattern. Brain and Nerve (Tokyo) 38: 859–863Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Tamura
  • Makoto Hirakawa
  • Keiji Sano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryTeikyo University School of MedicineItabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173Japan

Personalised recommendations