Cooperative Learning and Technological Development in Japan

  • Yoshitaka Okada


Technological development is one of the major factors accounting for Japan’s rapid industrial development from the ruins of war to second place in the world. It is reported that market competition in Japan is severe and that firms stress technology in their competitive strategies. But government has played a role in spurring firms to advance from innovative imitation to radical innovation. Policy goals have changed over the decades, from support for technology import in the 1950s, to technology development in the 1960s, to radical innovation since the 1970s. In the 1980s the government stressed technological development as the life line of the economy.


Small Firm Research Association Technological Capability Consult Firm Academic Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aichlken Shokobu (Commerce and Industry Section, Aichi Prefectural Government) (1992). Kenkyu Koryu Sisutemuka Chosa: Kyodo Kenkyu Shisaku Jirei Shu (Study on Research Interaction System: Cooperative Research Examples). Nagoya: Aichiken Shokobu.Google Scholar
  2. Brock, Malcolm V. (1989). Biotechnology in Japan. N.Y.: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Chusho Kigyo Cho (Small and Medium Enterprise Agency) (1992). Chusho Kigyo Shisaku no Aramashi (Overall Guidelines of Government Policies for Small- and Medium-Sized Firms). Tokyo: Chusho Kigyo Sogo Kenkyu Kiko.Google Scholar
  4. Chusho Kigyo Cho Gijyutsuka (Small and Medium Enterprise Agency Technology Section) (1993). Gijyutsu no Suketto Kosetsushi (Technology Helper Kosetsushi).Tokyo: Doyukan.Google Scholar
  5. Cusumano, Michael A. (1993). Nihon no Sofuto Uea Senryaku (Japan’s Software Strategies). Tokyo: Mita Publisher.Google Scholar
  6. Fransman, Martin (1990). The Market and Beyond: Cooperation and Competition in Information Technology Development in the Japanese System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goto, Akira (1993). Nihon no Gijyutsu Kakushin to Sangyo Soshiki (Japanese Technological Innovation and Industrial Organization). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  8. Goto, Akira and Wakasugi, Ryuhei (1988). “Technology Policy.” In Ryutaro Komiya, Masahiro Okuno, and Kotaro Suzumura. Eds. Industrial Policy of Japan. N.Y.: Academic Press. Pp. 183–205.Google Scholar
  9. Imai, Kenichi (1986). “Japan’s Industrial Policy for High Technology Industry.” In Hugh Patrick. Ed. Japan’s High Technology Industries. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Pp. 137–170.Google Scholar
  10. Ito, Daiichi (1991). “Government-Industry Relations in a Dual Regulatory Scheme: Engineering Research Associations as Policy Instruments.” In Stephen Wilks and Maurice Wright. Eds. The Promotion and Regulation of Industry in Japan. London: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd. Pp. 51–80.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson, Bjorn (1992). “Institutional Learning.” In Bengt-Ake Lundvall. Ed. National Systems of Innovation: Toward ATheory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Printer Publishers. Pp. 23–44.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson, Chalmers (1982). MITI and the Japanese Miracle. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kagaku Gijyutsu Seisakushi Kenkyukai (Study Group on Science and Technology Policy History) (1990). Nihon no Kagaku Gijyutsu Seisaku Shi (History of Japanese Science and Technology Policy). Tokyo: Mitoh Kagaku Gijyutsu Kyokai.Google Scholar
  14. Kato, Makoto; Mizuno, Takeshi; and Kobayashi, Yasuo. Eds. (1977). Soshiki Mondai to Chushokigyo (Organizational Problems and Small- and Medium-Sized Firms). Tokyo: Doyukan.Google Scholar
  15. Kodama, Fumio (1991). Haiteku Gijyutsu no Paradaimu (Paradigm in High Technology). Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha.Google Scholar
  16. Moritani, Masanori (1986). Gijyutsu Kaihatsu no Showashi (History of Technology Development in Showa Period). Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shinposha.Google Scholar
  17. Okada, Yoshitaka (1990). Technological Development and Growth of Japanese Integrated Circuit Firms: an Exploratory Study. Center for Japan-U.S. Relations Working Paper No. 5. International University of Japan.Google Scholar
  18. Okada, Yoshitaka (1993). “Institutional Arrangements and Japanese Competitive-cum-Cooperative System of Production.” A paper presented at the Conference on “The Social System of Production,” held at St. John’s College at Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, on September 23–26.Google Scholar
  19. Okimoto, Daniel I. (1986). “Regime Characteristics of Japanese Industrial Policy.” In Hugh Patrick. Ed. Japan’s High Technology Industries. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Pp. 35–95Google Scholar
  20. Saito, Masaru (1988). Gijyutsu Kaihatsuron: Nihon no Gijyutsu Kaihatsu Mekanizumu to Seisaku (Study of Technology Development: Mechanism of Japanese Technological Development and Policies). Tokyo: Bunshindo.Google Scholar
  21. Sigurdson, Jon and Anderson, Alun M. (1991). Science and Technology in Japan. Essex, U.K.: Longman Group UK Ltd.Google Scholar
  22. Tatsuno, Sheridan M. (1991). “Building the Japanese Techno-State: The Regionalization of Japanese High Tech.” In Ulrich Hilpert. Ed. Regional Innovation and Decentralization: High Tech Industry and Government Policy. London: Routledge. Pp. 219–235.Google Scholar
  23. Tokyo Maruami Meriyasu Kogyo Kumiai (Tokyo Round-Neck Knitting Goods Industry) (1974). Tokyo Maruami Meriyasu Sangyo Shi (History of Round-Neck Knitted Goods in Tokyo). Tokyo: Tokyo Maruami Meriyasu Kogyo Kumiai.Google Scholar
  24. Wada, Masateke (1994). “Role of Technology Supporting Institutions in Technological Innovation in the Japanese Software Industry.” A paper submitted to the World Bank for “Policy and Institutional Priorities for Industrial Technology Development” project. May.Google Scholar
  25. Wakasugi, Ryuhei (1986). Gijyutsu Kakushin to Kenkyu Kaihatsu no Keizai Bunseki (Economic Analyses of Technological Innovation and R&D Activities). Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shinposha.Google Scholar
  26. Williamson, Oliver (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. Williamson, Oliver (1985). The Economic Institution of Capitalism. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshitaka Okada
    • 1
  1. 1.Sophia UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations