Global Warming pp 131-163 | Cite as

Impacts on Hydrology/Water Resources and Water Environment

  • Keisuke Hanaki
  • Kaoru Takara
  • Takayuki Hanazato
  • Hiromaru Hirakuchi
  • Hajime Kayanne


Though the average annual precipitation in Japan is comparatively high on a global basis, precipitation varies significantly across both time and space. In addition, a steep terrain with short rivers and narrow watersheds result in a quick runoff to the sea. The fact that this precipitation cannot be used effectively as water resources is a major distinguishing characteristic. Evaluation of warming effects based on historical weather and hydrologic records, evaluation of effects based on warming scenarios and long-term runoff model, and evaluation of effects bases on a macro- hydrological model considering atmosphere-land surface interactions have been conducted so far.

The major findings obtained by review of these studies are as follows. (1) An approximate 10% variation in precipitation affects flow conditions more than an approximate 3°C rise in temperature. (2) On average, a 10% increase in precipitation coupled with a 3°C rise in temperature does little to reduce flows in water-scarce areas but increases flows by roughly 15% in water-abundant areas. (3) A temperature rise turns snowfall to rain and accelerates snow melting, increasing flows from January through March and decreasing flows from April through June.


Chemical Oxygen Demand Coral Reef Coral Community High Water Temperature Warming Scenario 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keisuke Hanaki
    • 1
  • Kaoru Takara
    • 2
  • Takayuki Hanazato
    • 3
  • Hiromaru Hirakuchi
    • 4
  • Hajime Kayanne
    • 5
  1. 1.Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyUniversity of TokyoMeguro-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityUji, KyotoJapan
  3. 3.Suwa Hydrobiological StationShinshu UniversitySuwa, NaganoJapan
  4. 4.Central Research Institute of Electric Power IndustryAbiko-shi, ChibaJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoHongo, TokyoJapan

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