Mechanisms of Fibrinolysis-Associated Hemorrhagic Transformation

  • G. J. del Zoppo
  • Y. Okada
  • G. F. Hamann
  • R. Fitridge
  • M. S. Pessin


Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage is an often-feared companion of acute cerebral ischemia treated with plasminogen activators. The pathophysiology of parenchymal hemorrhage is poorly understood and has been the subject of previous treatises in this series [1,2]. Clinical studies of this disorder suggest a spectrum of clinical severity from asymptomatic episodes diagnosed by computed tomographic (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to catastrophic events with debilitating or fatal issue [3–13]. The importance of understanding the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic events, particularly in the setting of fibrinolytic intervention, is emphasized by the dilemma that can arise in judging whether a particular hemorrhage may be reasonably attributable to the plasminogen activator the patient has received.


Acute Ischemic Stroke Focal Cerebral Ischemia Hemorrhagic Transformation Embolic Stroke Hemorrhagic Event 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. del Zoppo
    • 1
  • Y. Okada
    • 1
  • G. F. Hamann
    • 1
  • R. Fitridge
    • 1
  • M. S. Pessin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Experimental MedicineThe Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyTufts-New England Medical CenterBostonUSA

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