Statistical Considerations of Therapeutic Results in Glioblastoma

  • K. Mineura


Together with recent developments in basic research and reflecting trends in information technology, there has been a large increase in the number of reports on the most representative of the malignant brain tumors, glioblastoma (GBM). Evaluation of the available therapeutic techniques is, however, a wide-ranging task and it is not always a simple matter to obtain an accurate understanding of the current state of GBM therapy. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic results in GBM cases, as reported in the literature, in relation to the therapeutic methods and the period during which the cases were treated. The study focuses primarily on the survival time and the survival rate of such patients.


Malignant Glioma Median Survival Time Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Malignant Brain Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aaronson H, Flanigan S, Mark J (1963) Chemotherapy of malignant brain tumors using regional perfusion: I. Technique and patient selection. Ann Surg 157: 394–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams GE, Dische S, Fowler JF, Thomlinson RH (1976) Hypoxic cell sensitizers in radiotherapy. Lancet 7952:186–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Afra D, Kocsis B, Dobay J, Eckhardt S (1983) Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with dibromodulcitol and CCNU in the postoperative treatment of gliomas. J Neurosurg 59: 106–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson AP (1978) Postoperative irradiation of glioblastomas. Results in a randomized series. Acta Radiol Oncol 17:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Avellanosa AW, West CR, Tsukada Y, Higby DJ, Bakshis, Reese PA, Jennings E (1979) Chemotherapy of nonirradiated malignant gliomas. Phase II study of the combination of methyl-CCNU, vincristine, and procarbazine. Cancer 44: 839–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailey P, Cushing H (1926) A classification of tumors of the glioma group. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bailey P, Sosman MC, Van Dessel A (1928) Roentgen therapy of glioma of the brain. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther 19:203–264Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bloom HJG, Peckham MJ, Richardson AE, Alexander PA, Payne PM (1973) Glioblastoma multiforme: A controlled trial to assess the value of specific active immunotherapy in patients treated by radical surgery and chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 27:253–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bloom HJG (1982) Recent results and research concerning the treatment of intracranial tumors. In: Chang CH, Housepian EM (eds) Tumors of the central nervous system. Modern radiotherapy in multidisciplinary, management. Masson New York, pp 225–248Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bouchard J, Peirce CB (1960) Radiation therapy in the management of neoplasms of the central nervous system, with a special note in regard to children: Twenty years’ experience, 1939–1958. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 84:610–627Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brisman R, Housepian EM, Chang C, Duffy P, Balis E (1976) Adjuvant nitrosourea therapy for glioblastoma. Arch Neurol 33:745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Busch E (1963) Indication for surgery in glioblastomas. Clin Neurosurg 9:1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Busch E, Christensen E (1947) The three types of glioblastoma. J Neurosurg 4:200–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chang CH (1977) Hyperbaric oxygen and radiation therapy in the management of glioblastoma. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 46:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chang CH, Horton J, Schoenfeld D, Salazar O, Perez-Tamayo R, Kramer S, Weinstein A, Nelson JS, Tsukada Y (1983) Comparison of postoperative in the radiotherapy and combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the multidisiplinary management of malignant gliomas. A Joint Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Cancer 52:997–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chin HW, Young AB, Maruyama Y (1981) Survival response of malignant gliomas to radiotherapy with or without BCNU or methyl-CCNU chemotherapy at the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Cancer Treat Rep 65:45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cianfriglia F, Pompili A, Riccio A, Grassi A (1980) CCNU-chemotherapy of hemispheric supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer 45:1289–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Concannon JP, Kramer S, Beny R (1960) The extent of intracranial gliomata at autopsy and its relationship to techniques used in radiation therapy of brain tumors. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 84:99–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cooper JS, Borok TL, Ransohoff J, et al. (1982) Malignant glioma. Results of combined modality therapy. JAMA 248:62–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davis L, Martin J, Goldstein SL, Ashkenazy M (1949) A study of 211 patients with verified glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 6:33–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dean M, Newton K, Swann G (1964) Percutaneous intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of intracranial neoplasms: A review of 36 cases. Bar J Radiol 40:828–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Douglas BG, Worth AJ (1982) Superfractionation in glioblastoma multiforme. Results of a phase II study. Int J Radiat Biol Phys 8:1787–1794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eagan RT, Childs DS, Layton DD, Laws ER, Bisel HF, Holbrook MA, Fleming TR (1979) Dianhydrogalactitol and radiation therapy. Treatment of supratentorial glioma. JAMA 241:2046–2050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Earle KM, Rentscheer EH, Snodgrass SR (1957) Primary intracranial neoplasms. Prognosis and classification of 153 verified cases. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 16: 321–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edland RW, Javid M, Ansfield FJ (1971) Glioblastoma multiforme. An analysis of the results of postoperative radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy and concomitant 5-fluorouracil. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 111: 337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    EORTC Brain Tumor Group (1981) Evaluation of CCNU, VM-26 plus CCNU, and procarbazine in supratentorial brain gliomas. J Neurosurg 55:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    EORTC (1983) Misonidazole in radiotherapy of supratentorial malignant brain gliomas in adult patients: A randomized double-blind study. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 19:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frankel SA, German WJ (1958) Glioblastoma multiforme. Review of 219 cases with regard to natural history, pathology, diagnostic methods, and treatment. J Neurosurg 15:489–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Frei E (1982) The National Cancer Chemotherapy Program. Science 217:600–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gerosa MA, Stefano ED, Olivi A (1981) VM-26 monochemotherapy trial in the treatment of recurrent supratentorial gliomas: Preliminary report. Surg Neurol 15:128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goldsmith MA (1974) Glioblastoma multiforme—a review of therapy. Cancer Treat Rep 1:153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Green SB, Byar DP, Walker MD, Pistenmaa DA, Alexander E, Batzdorf U, Brooks WH, Hunt WE, Mealey J, Odom GL, Paoletti P, Ransohoff J, Robertson JT, Selker RG, Shapiro WR, Smith KR, Wilson CB, Strike TA (1983) Comparisons of carmu-stine, procarbazeine, and high-dose methylprednisolone as addition to surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. Cancer Treat Rep 67:121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Greenberg HS, Ensminger WD, Seeger JF, Kindt GW, Chandler WF, Doan K, Dokhil SR (1981) Intra-arterial BCNU chemotherapy for the treatment malignant gliomas of the central nervous system: A preliminary report. Cancer Treat Rep 65: 803–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grunert V, Jellinger K, Sunder-Plassmann M (1973) Glioblastoma multiforme: A preliminary follow-up study. Mod Aspects Neurosurg 3:108–115Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heiss WD (1978) Chemotherapy of malignant gliomas: Comparison of the effect of polychemo- and CCNU-therapy. Acta Neurochir 42:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Herskovic A, Ornitz RD, Shell M, Rogers CC (1982) Treatment experience. Glioblastoma multiforme treated with 15 MeV fast neutrons. Cancer 49:2463–2485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hitchcock E, Sato F (1964) Treatment of malignant gliomata. J Neurosurg 21:497–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hochberg FH, Linggood R, Wolfson, Baker WK, Kornblith P (1979) Quality and duration of survival in glioblastoma multiforme. Combined surgical, radiation, and lomustine therapy. JAMA 241:1016–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hochberg FH, Pruitt A (1980) Assumptions in the radiotherapy of glioblastoma. Neurology 30:907–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hochberg FH, Parker LM, Takvorian T, Canellos GP, Zervas NT (1981) High-dose BCNU with autologous bone marrow rescue for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 54:454–460Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hosobuchi Y, Phillips TL, Stupar TA, Gutin PH (1972) Interstitial brachy therapy of primary brain tumors. Preliminary report. J Neurosurg 53:613–617Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hunt WE (1972) Surgical treatment of adult brain tumors. Pregr Exp Tumor Res 17:400–407Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jacque C, Kujas M, Raoul M, Baumann N, Poisson M (1983) Valeur pronostique du dosage de la proteine gliofibrillaire dans les gliomes malins traités par chimioet radiothérapie. Sem Hôp Paris 59:464–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jelsma R, Bucy PC (1969) Glioblastoma multiforme. Arch Neurol 20:161–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jelsma R, Bucy PC (1953) The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme of the brain. J Neurosurg 10:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kahr E (1978) Megavoltage therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neurochir 42:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kennedy B, Brown J, Yarbo J (1965) Mithramycin (NSC-24559) therapy for primary glioblastomas. Cancer Chemother Rep 48: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kernohan JW, Mabon RF, Svien HJ, Adson AW (1949) A simplified classification of the glioma. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 24:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Laramore GE, Griffin TW, Gerdes AJ, Parker RG (1978) Fast neutron and mixed (neutron/photon) beam teletherapy for grade III and IV astrocytomas. Cancer 42:96–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Levin VA, Wilson CB, Davis R, Wara WM, Pisher TL, Irwim L (1979) A phase III comparison of BCNU, hydroxyurea, and radiation therapy to BCNU and radiation therapy for treatment of primary malignant gliomas. J Neurosurg 51: 526–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Luyendijk W, Beusekom G (1966) Chemotherapy of cerebral gliomas with intracarotid methotrexate-infusion. Acta Neurochir 15:234–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mahaley M, Woodhall B (1967) Regional chemotherapeutic perfusion and infusion of brain and face tumors. Ann Surg 166:266–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Marsa GW, Goffinet DR, Pubinstein LJ, Bagshaw MA (1975) Megavoltage irradiation in the treatment of gliomas of the brain and spinal cord. Cancer 36:1681–1689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marshall LF, Jennett B, Langfitt TW (1974) Needle biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant glioma. JAMA 228:1417–1418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marshall LF, Langfitt TW (1977) Needle biopsy, high-dose corticosteroids, and radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumors. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 46:157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Matsukado Y, Maccarthy CS, Kernohan JW (1961) The growth of glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytomas, grade 3 and 4) in neurosurgical practice. J Neurosurg 18:636–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mealey J (1962) Treatment of malignant cerebral astrocytomas by intraarterial infusion of vinblastine. Cancer Chemother Rep 20:121–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moersch FP, Craig WM, Kernohan JW (1941) Tumors of the brain in aged persons. Arch Neurol Psychiat 45:235–245Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    MRC (Medical Research Council) (1983) A study of the effect of misonidazole in conjunction with radiotherapy for the treatment of grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas. Br J Radiol 56:678–682Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nelson DF, Schoenfeld D, Weinstein AS, Nelson JS, Wasserman T, Goodman RL, Carabell S (1983) A randomized comparison of misonidazole sensitized radiotherapy plus BCNU and radiotherapy plus BCNU for treatment of malignant glioma after surgery; preliminary results of an ROTG study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:1143–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nelson JS, Schoenfeld D, Tsukada Y, (1982) Histologic criteria with prognostic significance for malignant glioma, In: Chang CH, Housepean EM (eds) Tumors of the central nervous system: Modern radiotherapy in multidisciplinary management. Masson New York, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nelson JS, Tsukada Y, Schoenfeld D, Fulling K, Lamarche J, Peress N (1983) Necrosis as a prognostic criterion in malignant supratentorial, astrocytic gliomas. Cancer 52:550–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Netsky MG, August B, Fowler W (1950) The longevity of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 7:261–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Onoyama Y, Abe M, Takahashi M, Yabumoto E, Sakamoto T (1976) Radiation therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma. Amer J Roentgenol 126:481–482Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Owen G, Javid R, Belmusto L, et al. (1965) Intra-arterial vincristine therapy of primary gliomas. Cancer 18:756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Owen G (1966) Infusion chemotherapy. New York J Med 66: 3026–3029Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Paillas JE, Combalbert A (1964) Évolution compartée des gliomes du orveau. A propos d’une statistigue operatoire de 333 cas observés avec les mènes méthodes durant une mêne decennie. Rev Neurol (Paris) 111:43–60Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Payne DG, Simpson WJ, Keen C, Platts ME (1982) Malignant astrocytoma. Hyper-fractionated and standard radiotherapy with chemotherapy in a randomized prospective clinical trial. Cancer 50:2301–2306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Poisson M, Pouillart P, Bataini JP, Mashaly R, Pertuiset BF, Metzger J (1979) Malignant gliomas treated after surgery by combination chemotherapy and delayed irraddia-tion: I. Analysis of results. Acta Neurochir 51:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pouillart P, Mathé G, Poisson M, Buge A, Huguenin P, Gautier H, Morin P, Thy HTH, Lheritier J, Parrot R (1976) Essai de traitement des glioblastomes de F adulte et des métastases cérébrales par F association d’ adriamycine, de VM-26 et de CCNU. Resultatus d’ un essai de type II. Nouv Presse Méd 5:1571–1575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ransohoff J, Martin BE, Medrek TJ, Harris MN, Golomb FM, Wright JC (1965) Preliminary clinical study of mithramycin (NSC-24559) in primary tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer Chemother Rep 49: 51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Reagan TJ, Bisel HF, Childs DS, Layton DD, Rhoton AL Jr, Taylor WF (1976) Controlled study of CCNU and radiation therapy in malignant astrocytoma. J Neurosurg 44:186–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Reeves GL, Marks JE (1979) Prognostic significance of lesion size for glioblastoma multiforme. Radiology 132:469–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rosenblum ML, Gerosa M, Dougherty DV, Wilson CB (1982) Age-related chemo-sensitivity of stem cells from human malignant brain tumors. Lancet 8277: 885–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rosenblum ML, Reynolds AF, Smith KA, Rumack BH, Walker MD (1973) Chloroethyl-cyclo-hexyl-nitrosourea (CCNU) in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. J Neurosurg 39: 306–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Roth JG, Elvidge AR (1960) Glioblastoma multiforme: A clinical survey. J Neurosurg 17:736–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sachs E (1954) The treatment of glioblastomas with radium. J. Neurosurg 7:185–189Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Salazar OM, Rubin P, McDonald JV, Feldstein ML (1976) Patterns of failure in intracranial astrocytomas after irradiation: Analysis of dose and field factors. AM J Roentgenol 126:627–637Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Salcman M (1980) Survival in glioblastoma: Historical perspective. Neurosurgery 7:435–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Salcman M, Kaplan RS, Montgomery E (1981) Influence of age on survival in glioblastoma patients after combined modality treatment. Neurosurgery 8:491–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Scanlon PW, Taylor WF (1979) Radiotherapy of intracranial astrocytomas: analysis of 417 cases treated from 1960 through 1969. Neurosurgery 5: 301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sciler RW, Greiner RH, Zimmermann A, Markwalder H (1978) Radiotherapy combined with procarbazine, bleomycin, and CCNU in the treatment of high-grade supratentorial astrocytomas. J Neurosurg 48:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sciler RW, Zimmermann A, Bleher E, Markwalder H (1979) Preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in hypervascular, high-grade supratentorial astrocytomas. Surg Neurol 12:131–133Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sciler RW, Zimmermann A, Markwalder H (1980) Adjuvant therapy with VM-26 and CCNU after operation and radiotherapy of high-grade supratentorial astrocytoma. Surg Neurol 13:65–68Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shaw CM, Sumi M, Alvord EC, Gerdes AJ, Spence A, Parker RG (1978) Fast-neutron irradiation of glioblastoma multiforme. Neuropathological analysis. J Neurosurg 49: 1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shehata WM, Meyer RL, Jazy FK (1983) Management of glioblastoma multiforme by irradiation and chemotherapy. Hinois Med J 163:30–34Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Simpson WJ, Platts ME (1976) Fractionation study in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1:639–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stage WS, Stein JJ (1974) Treatment of malignant astrocytomas. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 120:7–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Takeuchi K, Hoshino K (1977) Statistical analysis of factors affecting survival after glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neurochir 37: 57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taveras JM, Thompson HG, Pool JL (1962) Should we treat glioblastoma multiforme? Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 87:473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tönnis W, Walter W (1959) Das Glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neurochir Supple 6:40–62Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Uihlein A, Colby MY, Layton DD, Parsons WR, Carter TL (1966) Comparison of surgery and surgery plus irradiation in the treatment of supratentorial gliomas. Acta Radiol [Ther] (Stockholm) 5:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Urtasun R, Band P, Chapman JD, Feldstein ML (1976) Radiation and high-dose metronidazole in supratentorial glioblastomas. N Engl J Med 294:1364–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Urtasun R, Feldstein ML, Partington J, Tanasichuk H, Miller JDR, Russell DB, Agboola O, Mielke B (1982) Radiation and nitroimidazoles in supratentorial high grade gliomas: A second clinical trial. Br J Cancer 46:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Walker MD, Alexander E, Hunt WE, MacCarty CS, Mahaley MS Jr, Mealer J Jr, Norrell HA, Owens G, Ransohoff J, Wilson CB, Gehan EA, Strike TA (1978) Evaluation of BCNU and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. A cooperative clinical trial. J Neurosurg 49:333–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Walker MD, Alexander E, Hunt WE (1976) Evaluation of mithramycin in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. J. Neurosurg 44: 655–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Walker MD, Green SB, Byar DP, Alexander E, Batzderf U, Brooks WH, Hunt WE, MacCarty CS, Mahaley MS Jr, Mealer J Jr, Owens G, Ransohoff J II, Robertson JT, Shapiro WR, Smith KR Jr, Wilson CB, Strike TA (1980) Randomized comparisons of radiotherapy and nitrosoureas for the treatment of malignant gliomas after surgery. N Engl J Med 303:1323–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Walker MD (1975) Malignant brain tumors. A synopsis. CA 25:114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wasserman TH, Stetz J, Phillips TL (1981) Radiation therapy oncology group clinical trials with misonidazole. Cancer 47:2382–2390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Weir B (1973) The relative significance of factors affecting postoperative survival in astrocytomas, grade 3 and 4. J Neurosurg 38:448–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weir B, Band P, Urtasun R, Blain G, McLean D, Wilson F, Mielke B, Grace M (1976) Radiotherapy and CCNU in the treatment of high-grade supratentorial astrocytomas. J Neurosurg 45:129–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    West CR, Avellanosa AM, Barua NR, Patel A, Hong CI (1983) Intraarterial l,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) and systemic chemotherapy for malignant glioma: A follow-up study. Neurosurgery 13:420–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wilson CB (1964) Chemotherapy of brain tumors by continuous arterial infusion. Surgery 55:640–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Young B, Old Field EH, Markesbery WR, Haack D, Tibbs RA, McCombs P, Chin HW, Maruyama Y, Meacham WF (1981) Reoperation for glioblastoma. J Neurosurg 55:917–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zülch KJ (1980) Principles of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors. Neuroradiology 19: 59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Mineura

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations