Distribution and Morphological Features of the Retinal Ganglion Cells in Chicks

  • Jumpei Naito
  • Yaoxing Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Keio University International Symposia for Life Sciences and Medicine book series (KEIO, volume 11)


Birds have a highly specialized visual system that produces a unique visual activity, especially in the visuomotor function. Although the avian visual system has been studied from various aspects, relatively few morphological analyses concerning retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have yielded precise results [1–5]. The reason is that analysis of avian RGCs is difficult and requires patient effort because of the extraordinarily high density of small RGCs and contamination by many displaced amacrine cells that migrate to the ganglion cell layer (GCL) [6]. In this mini article, we state the distribution and morphological features of chick RGCs.

Key words

Vision Avian retina Neuron Morphometry Bird 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jumpei Naito
    • 1
  • Yaoxing Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, School of Sciences and EngineeringTeikyo University of Science and TechnologyUenohara, Kitatsuru-gun, YamanashiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Animal MedicineChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

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