Distance and Size Estimation in the Tiger Beetle Larva: Behavioral, Morphological, and Electrophysiological Approaches

  • Yoshihiro Toh
  • Jun-Ya Okamura
  • Yuki Takeda
Conference paper
Part of the Keio University International Symposia for Life Sciences and Medicine book series (KEIO, volume 11)


Estimation of the size and distance of an object is one of the important visual functions for a wide variety of animals. How do animals visually measure distance and size? The size of the retinal image of a given object changes as a function of both distance and its absolute size. Since higher animals can learn the absolute size of many objects in their visual worlds, they can estimate the distance to a particular object by its apparent angular size from knowledge of its absolute size gained by memory. Of course, humans can also estimate an object’s distance by binocular disparity.

Key words

Tiger beetle Stemma Visual interneuron Optic neuropil Vision 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Toh
    • 1
  • Jun-Ya Okamura
    • 1
  • Yuki Takeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of ScienceKyushu UniversityHigashi-ku, FukuokaJapan

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