Approaches Towards Environmental Restoration

  • Tom Murphy
  • Hans G. Peterson


Some lake restoration problems are clearly global, and local treatments have little chance of success. Introduced species are one example where prevention has to be considered as the primary treatment. In the Great Lakes, introduced species like zebra mussels and round gobies are changing the ecosystem and threatening native species with extinction. There has been some control of introduced sea lamprey but only at great expense. Certainly, atmospheric loading of toxins like PCBs and dioxins into lakes must also be controlled at the source. Other contaminants, like mercury, probably need the same management, but consensus is not as clear. Once persistent contaminants are released into large bodies of water, they cannot be effectively treated. Sulfur loading is another aspect of atmospheric loading that is best controlled at the source. Sulfur loading into Lake Biwa, Japan is causing enhanced eutrophication. It is better to help continental Asia control their sulfur releases than to try to treat the problem in Lake Biwa. When lake restoration is used at a local level, it is still important to have at least a regional or national coordination. Treatment of lakes is often too expensive for local taxes and a higher level of government must be involved. For the most serious global water management problems, international cooperation is required. Water deficits in some areas are serious and may involve climate change driven by global factors like increases in carbon dioxide. Water management in the third world often requires global.


Aquatic Plant Great Lake Zebra Mussel Round Goby Copper Sulphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D. M., S. B. Galloway, and J. D. Joseph. 1993. Marine biotoxins and harmful algae: A national plan. WHOI Tech. Rep. 93–02, Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Babin, J. M., E. E. Prepas, T. P. Murphy, and H. Hamilton. 1989. A test of the effects of lime on algal biomass and total phosphorus concentrations in Edmonton stormwater retention lakes. Lake Reserv. Manage. 5(1):129–135.Google Scholar
  3. Babin, J. M., E. E. Prepas, T. P. Murphy, M. Serediak, and P. J. Curtis. 1994. Impact of lime on sediment phosphorus release in hardwater lakes: the case of hypertrophic Halfmoon Lake, Alberta. The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Lake Reservoir. Man. 8:(2)1–15.Google Scholar
  4. Babin, J. M., T. P. Murphy, and J. T. Lynn. 1999. In situ sediment treatment in Kai Tak Nullah to control odours and methane production, p. 823–828. In J. H. W. Lee, A. W. Jayawardena, and Z.Y. Wang [eds.], Proceedings Second International Symposium on River Sedimentation, Hong Kong, Dec. 16–18, A. A. Balkema Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bellemakers, M. J. S., and M. Maessen. 1998. Effects of alkalinity and external sulfate and phosphorus load on water chemistry in enclosures in an eutrophic shallow lake. Water Air Soil Poll. 101: 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, S., and Dale Honeyfield. 2000. Report on Early Mortality Syndrome Workshop, Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Board of Technical Experts, Research Task Report, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Brownlee, B. G., D. S. Painter, and R. J. Boone. 1984. Identification of taste and odour compounds from western Lake Ontario. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada 19: 111–118.Google Scholar
  8. Buchholz, U., E. Mouzin, R. Dickey, R. Moolenaar, N. SASS, and L. Mascola. 2000. Haff Disease: From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore. 2000.
  9. Caraco, N. F., J. J. Cole, and G. E. Likens. 1989. Evidence for sulfate-controlled phosphorus release from sediments of aquatic systems. Nature 341: 316–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carmichael, W. 1994. The toxins of cyanobacteria. Scientific American 270(1): 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chao, B. F. 1995. Anthropogenic impact on global geodynamics due to reservoir water impoundment. Geophys. Research. Letter. 22: 3529–3532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chapman, A. D. and C. L. Schelske. 1997. Recent appearance of Cylindrospermopsis (Cyanobacteria) in five hypertrophic Florida lakes. J. Phycology 33: 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charlton, M. N., R. Lesage, and J. E. Milne. 1999. Lake Erie in Transition: the 1990’s, p. 97–123. In M. Munawar, T. Edsall and I. F. Munawar [eds.], In State of Lake Erie (SOLE) — Past, Present and Future. Bachhuys Publishers. Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  14. Curran, K. J., K. N. Irvine, I. G. Droppo, and T. P. Murphy. 2000. Suspended solids, trace metal and PAH concentrations and loadings from coal pile runoff to Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 26(1):18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickman, M. D., C. K. M. Leung, and M. K. H. Leong. 1998. Hong Kong male subfertility links to mercury in human hair and fish. Sci. Total Environ. 214: 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Donnelly, T. H., M. R. Grace, and B. T. Hart. 1997. Algal blooms in the Darling-Barwon River, Australia. Water Air Soil Pollut. 99: 487–496.Google Scholar
  17. Falconer, I. R. 1999. An overview of problems caused by toxic blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in drinking and recreational water. Environ. Toxicol. 14: 5–12.Google Scholar
  18. Fitzsimons, J., S. B. Brown, D. C. Honeyfield, and J. G. Hnath. 1999. A review of early mortality syndrome (EMS) in Great Lakes salmonids: relationship with thiamin deficiency. Ambio. 28(1): 9–15.Google Scholar
  19. Griffioen, J. 1994. Uptake of phosphate by iron hydroxides during seepage in relation to development of groundwater composition in coastal areas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28: 675–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guo, H-R. 2003, Arsenic in Drinking Water and Cancers in Taiwan. In T. Murphy and J. Guo [eds.], Aquatic Arsenic Toxicity and Treatment, Backhuys Press, in press.Google Scholar
  21. Hallegraeff, G. M. 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32(2): 79–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hinterkopf, J. P., D. C. Honeyfield, J. Markarewicz and T. Lewis. 1999. Abstract. Abundance of Plankton Species in Lake Michigan and Incidence of Early Mortality Syndrome from 1983 to 1992. Report on Early Mortality Syndrome Workshop, Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Board of Technical Experts, Research Task Report, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Hupfer, H., P. Fischer, and K. Friese. 1998. Phosphorus retention mechanisms in the sediment of an eutrophic mining lake. Water Air Soil Poll. 108: 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jeffries, D. S., D. C. L. Lam, I. Wong, and M. D. Moran. 2000. Assessment of changes in lake pH in southeastern Canada arising from present levels and expected reductions in acidic deposition. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57, Suppl. 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, G. J. and P. T. Orr. 1994. Release and degradation of microcystin following algicide treatment of a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in a recreational lake, as determined by HPLC and protein phosphatase inhibition assay. Wat. Res. 28(4): 871–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karim, M. M. 2000. Arsenic in groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh. Water Resources 34(1): 304–310.Google Scholar
  27. Lamers, L. P. M., S. J. Falla, E. M. Samborska, L. A. R. van Dulken, G. van Hengstum, and J. G. M. Roelofs. 2002. Factors controlling the extent of eutrophication and toxicity in sulfate-polluted freshwater wetlands. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 585–593.Google Scholar
  28. Lean, D. R. S., T. P. Murphy, and F. R. Pick. 1982. Photosynthetic response of lake plankton to combined nitrogen enrichment. J. Phycol. 18: 509–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewis, L. 1995. Measurement of mercury in natural gas streams. Proceedings of the Seventy-Fourth Gas Processors Association Convention, San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  30. Mccarl, B. A. and U. A. Schneider. 2001. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science 294: 2481–2482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murphy, T. P., E. E. Prepas, J. T. Lim, J. M. Crosby, and D. T. Walty. 1990. Evaluation of calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide treatments of prairie drinking water dugouts. Lake Reservoir. Man. 6(1):101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy, T. P., A. Lawson, M. Kumagai, and J. Babin. 1999. Review of Canadian Experiences in Sediment Treatment. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 2: 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, T. P., A. Lawson, C. Nalewajko, H. Murkin, L. Ross, K. Oguma, and T. Mcintyre. 2000. Algal toxins — initiators of avian botulism? Environ. Tox. 15: 558–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murphy, T. P., A. Lawson, C. Nalewajko, and M. Kumagai. 2001. Sediment Phosphorus Release in Lake Biwa, Limnology 2: 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nalewajko, C., and T. P. Murphy. 2001. The importance of temperature, and N and P availability to the abundance of Anabaena and Microcystis in Lake Biwa, Japan: an experimental approach. Limnology 2: 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nikiforuk, A. 2002. The Water Crisis, Alberta Venture Magazine.Google Scholar
  37. Nordhaus, W. D. 2001. Global warming economics. Science 294: 1283–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oda, T., Y. Sato, D. Kim, T. Muramatsu, Y. Matsuyama, and T. Honjo. 2000. Hemolytic activity of Heterocapsa circularisquama (Dinophyceae) and its possible involvement in shellfish toxicity. J. Phycol. 37: 509–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olsson, S., J. Regnéll, A. Persson, and P. Sandgren. 1997. Sediment-chemistry response to land-use change and pollutant loading in a hypertrophic lake, southern Sweden. J. Paleolim. 17: 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pirrone, N., I. Allegrini, G. J. Keeler, J. O. Nriagu, R. Rossman, and J. A. Robbins. 1998. Historical atmospheric mercury emissions and deposition in North America compared to mercury accumulations in sedimentary records. Atmospheric Environment 32: 929–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prepas, E. E., T. P. Murphy, J. M. Crosby, D. T. Walty, J. T. Lim, J. Babin, and P. A. Chambers. 1990. Reduction of phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations following CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 additions to hypertrophic Figure Eight Lake, Alberta. Environ. Sci. Tech. 24: 1252–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reid, J. 1994. Arsenic occurrence: USEPA seeks clearer picture. J. AWWA 86(9): 44–51.Google Scholar
  43. Ricciardi, A. 2001. Facilitative interactions among aquatic invaders: is an “invasional meltdown” occurring in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58(12): 2513–2525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robb, M., and G. Douglas. 2000. Clay treatment — Australia tests “Phoslock” river treatment. Scope Newsletter 38 and and type “Phoslock” in search.Google Scholar
  45. Satake, K., S. Kojima, T. Takamatsu, J. Shindo, T. Nakano, S. Aoki, T. Fukuyama, S. Hatakeyama, K. Ikuta, M. Kawashima, Y. Kohno, K Murano, T. Okita, H. Taoda, and K. Tsunoda. 2001. Acid Rain 2000 - Conference Summary Statement - Looking Back to the Past and Thinking of the Future. Water Air Soil Pollut. 130: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schroeder, W. H., and J. Munthe. 1998. Atmospheric mercury — an overview. Atmospheric Environment 32: 809–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scott, M. C. and G. S. Helfman. 2002. Native invasions, homogenization, and the mismeasure of integrity of fish assemblages. Fisheries 26(11): 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Serediak, M., E. E. Prepas, T. P. Murphy, and J. Babin. 2002. Development, construction and use of lime and alum application systems in Alberta. Lake Reserv. Manage.Google Scholar
  49. Sherwood, L. J. and R. G. Qualls. 2001. Stability of phosphorus within a wetland soil following ferric chloride treatment to control eutrophication. Environ. Sci. Technology 35: 4126–4131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shirota, A. 1989. Red tide problem and countermeasures. Int. J. Aquat. Fish. Technol. 1: 195–223.Google Scholar
  51. Sivonen, K. 1990. Effects of light, temperature, nitrate, orthophosphate and bacteria on growth of and hepatotoxin production by Oscillatoria agardii strains. Applied Environ. Microbiol. 56: 2658–2666.Google Scholar
  52. Smedley, P. L. and D. G. Kinniburgh. 2002. A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Applied Geochemistry 17: 517–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. ST. Amand, A. 2002. Cylindrospermopsis: an invasive toxic alga. Lakeline 22(1): 36–37.Google Scholar
  54. Sutton, M. A. 2002. Introduction: fluxes and impacts of atmospheric ammonia on national, landscape and farm scales. Environmental Pollution 119: 7–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsuji, K., T. Watanuki, F. Kondo, M. F. Watanabe, S. Suzuki, H. Nakazawa, M. Suzuki, H. Uchida, and K. Harada. 1995. Stability of microcystins from cyanobacteria - II. Effect of UV light on decomposition and isomerization. Toxicon. 33(12): 1619–1631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walther, G. R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J. M. Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, L., and S. Wang. 2003. Arsenic in Water Its Health Effect. In T. Murphy and J. Guo, Aquatic Arsenic Toxicity and Treatment, Backhuys Press, in press.Google Scholar
  58. Wulff, A. 2001. Is there a coupling between increased UVB radiation and toxic algal blooms. SIL 2001 XXVIII Congress, Melbourne, Australia, Abstract.Google Scholar
  59. Yoo, R. S., W. W. Carmichael, R. C. Hoehn, and S. E. Hrudey. 1995. Cyanobacterial (Blue-green algal) Toxins: A Resource Guide. American Water Works Association 230 p.Google Scholar
  60. Bastian, R. K., P. E. Shanaghan, and B. P. Thompson. 1989. Use of wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment and disposal-regulatory issues and EPA policies, p. 265–278. In D. A. Hammer [ed.], Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  61. Brix, H., and H. H. Schierup, 1989. The use of aquatic macrophytes in water pollution control. Ambio 18: 100–107.Google Scholar
  62. Cooper, P. F. 1993. The use of reed bed systems to treat domestic sewage: the European design and operations guidelines for reed bed treatment systems, p. 203–217. In G. A. Moshiri [ed.], Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  63. Kadlec, R. H. 1995. Design models for nutrient removal in constructed wetlands, p. 173–184. In K. Steele [ed.], Animal waste and the land-water interface. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  64. Kadlec, R. H., and R. L. Knight. 1996. Treatment wetlands. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL., 893 p.Google Scholar
  65. Knight, R. L., R. W. Ruble, R. H. Kadlec, and S. Reed. 1993. Wetlands for wastewater treatment: performance database, p. 35–38. In G. A. Moshiri [ed.], Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  66. Mitsch, W. J., and J. G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands. Academic Press, New York, NY. 722 p.Google Scholar
  67. Peterson, H. G. 1998. Use of constructed wetlands to process agricultural wastewater. Can. J. Plant Sci. 78: 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peterson, H. G., S. E. Hrudey, L. A. Cantin, T. R. Perley, and S. L. Kenefick. 1995. Physiological toxicity, cell membrane damage and the release of dissolved organic carbon and geosmin by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after exposure to water treatment chemicals. Wat. Res. 29: 1515–1523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reed, S., R. Crites, and J. Middlebrooks. 1995. Natural systems for waste management and treatment, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Ryding, S. O., and W. Rast. 1989. The control of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs. UNESCO, Paris, France. 314 p.Google Scholar
  71. Stone, J. A., and D. E. Legg, 1992. Agriculture and the Everglades. J. Soil Water Conservation 47: 207–215.Google Scholar
  72. Tchobanoglous, G. 1993. Constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems: research, design, operational, and monitoring issues, p. 23–24. In G. A. Moshiri [ed.], Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  73. Whigham, D. F. 1995. The role of wetlands, ponds, and shallow lakes in improving water quality, p. 163–172. In K. Steele [ed.], Animal waste and the land-water interface. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Murphy
    • 1
  • Hans G. Peterson
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Conservation ServiceNational Water Research Institute, Ecosystem Science DirectorateEnvironmentCanada
  2. 2.WateResearch Corp.SaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations