The Development of Computer Animation in Various Organizations

  • Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann
  • Daniel Thalmann
Part of the Computer Science Workbench book series (WORKBENCH)


During the period 1963–1967, a dozen computer films were made at Bell Telephone Laboratories Apart from Ken Knowlton [1964, 1965], the most important computer animators at Bell Labs were:
  • E. Zajac [1966], who made the first computer-animated film Two-gyro gravity-gradient attitude control system in 1963.

  • F. Sinden [1967], who made Force, Mass and Motion, a film that demonstrates Newton’s laws of motion; the programming language was FORTRAN.

  • Huggins and Weiner, who made Harmonic Phasors, a film concerning the composition of complicated penodic waveforms; the film was produced by programming in PMACRO [Alexander and Huggins, 1967].


Attitude Control System Frame Buffer ammatIOn System productIOn House Definition Mode 


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Copyright information

© Springer- Verlag Tokyo 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann
    • 1
  • Daniel Thalmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Hautes Etudes CommercialesUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Département d’Informatique et de Recherche OpérationnelleUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada

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