For the Japanese automobile industry, the year 1994 was very similar to the year the fleet of “black ships” came to Japan 140 years ago. 1994’s sudden flood of American vehicles in Japan caused shock waves much like those generated when the fleet of U.S. Navy ships (called “black ships” because they were painted black) commanded by Admiral Perry arrived at Uraga Bay near Yokohama in 1854. The admiral asked the Tokugawa shogunate government to suspend the national isolation policy and forced it to sign trade and port treaties with the result that Japan opened up its market to foreign trade.


Japanese Market Convertible Bond Competitive Strength Auto Part Automobile Dealer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Kawahara
    • 1
  1. 1.Minato-ku, TokyoJapan

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