Analysis of Flagellar Movement in Ginkgo biloba Sperm by High Speed Video Microscopy
The discovery of a freely swimming sperm in Ginkgo biloba at the end of the nineteenth century by Sakugoro Hirase [1–3] was one of the most significant moments in botany, because it led to the establishment of Ginkgo as the true and sole link between the non-flowering primitive plants and the advanced seed plants. Hirase, as both amateur botanist and artist, was able to beautifully depict the sperm  and fertilization process in Ginkgo , and although he was able to describe the ornamentation of the spiral, from which emanate thousands of flagella, the instruments of the day prevented him from more fully understanding the complexity of the apparatus.
KeywordsPollen Tube Power Stroke Flagellar Movement Spiral Formation Body Oscillation
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