Ultrastructure of Ginkgo biloba

  • René Rohr


This chapter describes aspects of Ginkgo biology that were investigated at the ultrastructural level using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TEM techniques were mainly used in the study of male and female organ ontogeny and of gametophyte development in situ and in vitro, as well as in studies of secretory structures and photosynthetic apparatus. Studies of mycorrhizae were done using both TEM and SEM; leaf surface, cuticle structure, and resistance to air pollution were investigated with SEM only. Generally, the material was prepared and stained according to standard procedures, except in the case of mycorrhizae for which specifically adapted techniques were used to improve SEM observation of the endophyte in situ as well as for the cytochemical localization of phenols with TEM. Most SEM was carried out on air-dried material coated with gold. TEM investigations were usually performed on material fixed in glutaraldehyde-osmium.


Female Gametophyte Spermatogenous Cell Ginkgo Biloba Megaspore Mother Cell Secretory Cavity 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • René Rohr
    • 1
  1. 1.Interactions Plantes-Champignons et Micropropagation, Bât. 405Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1Villeurbanne CedexFrance

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