Fossils and Phenology in the Evolution of Ginkgo biloba

  • Gar W. Rothwell
  • Ben Holt


Among the unique and intriguing features that make ginkgophytes some of the most fascinating of seed plants is the rich fossil record for a clade that is monotypic in the modern flora, and for which there may be no natural populations in the wild [1]. Numerous apparently primitive features contribute to the systematic intrigue of ginkgophytes and to their apparently crucial role in seed plant evolution. Meyen [2] considered Ginkgo to represent one of three major groups of seed plants, Florin [3] interpreted Ginkgo to have evolved in parallel to conifers. Emberger [4] interpreted Ginkgo to be little changed in its reproductive biology from the most ancient seed plants, and modern cladistic analyses place Ginkgo below all or nearly all other living species on the seed-plant tree [e.g., 5–7].


Seed Dispersal Seed Plant Ginkgo Biloba Dispersal Syndrome Ginkgo Seed 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gar W. Rothwell
    • 1
  • Ben Holt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Plant BiologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA

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