The Genetic Diversity of Isozymes and the Possible Dissemination of Ginkgo biloba in Ancient Times in Japan

  • Yoshihiko Tsumura
  • Kihachiro Ohba


Ginkgo biloba, a deciduous plant that was called a living fossil by Charles Darwin, is one of the most ancient gymnosperms in the world. Species of this genus were widely distributed throughout the world during the Jurassic period. Based on fossil records, it is estimated that at least 12 Ginkgo species existed. Most species of this genus and many other plant species perished during the glacial epochs of the Tertiary period. However, G. biloba is considered to have survived in southern China because of the warm climate. Natural Ginkgo trees are said to still exist in southern China. G. biloba has now spread by introduction to many countries worldwide as an ornamental tree.


Genetic Mode Polymorphic Locus Canonical Variable Local Group Genetic Identity 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiko Tsumura
    • 1
  • Kihachiro Ohba
    • 2
  1. 1.Bio-Resources Technology DivisionForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteKukizaki, Ibaraki 305Japan
  2. 2.Institute of Agriculture and ForestryUniversity of TsukubaTsukuba, Ibaraki 305Japan

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