Cyclic Embryogenesis from Male and Female Protoplasts

  • Jocelyne Trémouillaux-Guiller


Ginkgo biloba (the maidenhair tree) of the family Ginkgoaceae is the single extant species of Order Ginkgoales, which appeared in the Permian era. This tree is distinguished by several remarkable features, such as its zoidogamous fertilization process, discovered by Hirase (1896) [1]. To assure growth of the zygotic embryo, the ovules of G. biloba store an abundance of reserve substances [2]. This species also produces molecules, ginkgolides and bilobalide, that are unique in the plant kingdom and show pharmaceutical properties. Ginkgolide B acts as an antagonist to platelet-activating factor (PAF), and has been reported as useful for the treatment of inflammatory reactions and immune diseases [3]. Unfortunately, the leaves of Ginkgo also contain small amounts of terpenoids, and the accumulation of metabolites is modified, depending on the conditions of culture and climate [4,5]. In vitro cultures can provide an alternative strategy for increasing the ginkgolide accumulation. Indeed, numerous procedures used for in vitro culture are known to enhance biochemical variability and are potentially able to provide new molecules never detected in the mother plant [5, 6]. Nevertheless, the capacity to accumulate secondary metabolites seems to be connected with morphological differentiation [7] but is often low for a given cell line. To solve this problem, the establishment of differentiated tissue cultures can be investigated.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Zygotic Embryo Naphthalene Acetic Acid Crown Gall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jocelyne Trémouillaux-Guiller
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cellular Biology and Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesFrancois Rabelais UniversityToursFrance

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