Lignotuber Development in Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is famous for its powers of survival. On the evolutionary time scale, the genus can be traced back at least to the middle Jurassic, while species that are similar to G. biloba date back to the Cretaceous. On the human time scale, the longevity of individual trees is equally impressive, particularly in Asia where ancient specimens, often approaching or exceeding a thousand years in age, can be seen growing in the vicinity of Buddhist or Taoist temples. In modern times, the ginkgo tree has been widely planted in many cities, where it flourishes in the midst of extreme air pollution and extensive pavement.
KeywordsMiddle Jurassic Stem Length Cotyledonary Node Ginkgo Biloba Arnold Arboretum
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Sealy JR (1949) The swollen stem-base in Arbutus unedo. Kew Bull 4: 241–251Google Scholar
- 4.Molinas ML, Verdaguer D (1993) Lignotuber ontogeny in the cork-oak ( Quercus suber: Fagaceae). II. Germination and young seedling. Amer J Bot 80: 182–191Google Scholar
- 5.Del Tredici P (1997) Lignotuber formation in Sequoia sempervirens: developmental morphology and ecological significance. In: Edelin C (ed) 3rd international congress, “The Tree,” 11–15 September 1995, Montpellier, France. Naturalia Monspeliensia, (in press)Google Scholar
- 8.Mesleard F, Lepart J (1989) Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber: Arbutus unedo L. and Erica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples. Oecologia (Berl) 80: 127–131Google Scholar
- 9.Canadell J, Zedier PH (1994) Underground structures of woody plants in Mediterranean ecosystems of Australia, California, and Chile. In: Kalin Arroyo MT, Zedier PH, Fox MD (eds) Ecology and biogeography of Mediterranean ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 177–210Google Scholar
- 10.Fujii K (1895) On the nature and origin of so-called “chichi” (nipple) of Ginkgo biloba L. Bot Mag Tokyo 9: 444–440Google Scholar
- 11.Li Z, Lin J (1991) Wood anatomy of the stalactite-like branches of Ginkgo. Int Assoc Wood Anat Bull 12: 251–255Google Scholar
- 12.Del Tredici P (1993) Ginkgo chichi in nature, legend, and cultivation. Int Bonsai 15: 20–25Google Scholar
- 13.SAS (1988) SAS procedures guide, 6. 03. SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar