Lignotuber Development in Ginkgo biloba

  • Peter Del Tredici


Ginkgo biloba is famous for its powers of survival. On the evolutionary time scale, the genus can be traced back at least to the middle Jurassic, while species that are similar to G. biloba date back to the Cretaceous. On the human time scale, the longevity of individual trees is equally impressive, particularly in Asia where ancient specimens, often approaching or exceeding a thousand years in age, can be seen growing in the vicinity of Buddhist or Taoist temples. In modern times, the ginkgo tree has been widely planted in many cities, where it flourishes in the midst of extreme air pollution and extensive pavement.


Middle Jurassic Stem Length Cotyledonary Node Ginkgo Biloba Arnold Arboretum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Del Tredici P (1992) Natural regeneration of Ginkgo biloba from downward growing cotyledonary buds (basal chichi). Amer J Bot 79: 522–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carr DJ, Jahnke R, Carr SGM (1984) Initiation, development, and anatomy of lignotubers in some species of Eucalyptus. Aust J Bot 32: 415–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sealy JR (1949) The swollen stem-base in Arbutus unedo. Kew Bull 4: 241–251Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Molinas ML, Verdaguer D (1993) Lignotuber ontogeny in the cork-oak ( Quercus suber: Fagaceae). II. Germination and young seedling. Amer J Bot 80: 182–191Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Del Tredici P (1997) Lignotuber formation in Sequoia sempervirens: developmental morphology and ecological significance. In: Edelin C (ed) 3rd international congress, “The Tree,” 11–15 September 1995, Montpellier, France. Naturalia Monspeliensia, (in press)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Del Tredici P, Ling H, Yang G (1992) The Ginkgos of Tian Mu Shan. Conserv Biol 6: 202–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    James S (1984) Lignotubers and burls—their structure, function and ecological signifi-cance in Mediterranean ecosystems. Bot Rev 50: 225–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mesleard F, Lepart J (1989) Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber: Arbutus unedo L. and Erica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples. Oecologia (Berl) 80: 127–131Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canadell J, Zedier PH (1994) Underground structures of woody plants in Mediterranean ecosystems of Australia, California, and Chile. In: Kalin Arroyo MT, Zedier PH, Fox MD (eds) Ecology and biogeography of Mediterranean ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 177–210Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fujii K (1895) On the nature and origin of so-called “chichi” (nipple) of Ginkgo biloba L. Bot Mag Tokyo 9: 444–440Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li Z, Lin J (1991) Wood anatomy of the stalactite-like branches of Ginkgo. Int Assoc Wood Anat Bull 12: 251–255Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Del Tredici P (1993) Ginkgo chichi in nature, legend, and cultivation. Int Bonsai 15: 20–25Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    SAS (1988) SAS procedures guide, 6. 03. SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Del Tredici
    • 1
  1. 1.Arnold Arboretum of Harvard UniversityJamaica PlainUSA

Personalised recommendations