Musicians and Hearing Impairment

  • Takeo Kobayashi


Difficulties and problems are varied for musicians with hearing impairment depending on the type and the degree of their deafness. Since no person with high degree of congenital deafness would choose music as a career, we shall not refer to such cases. The problem arises where a person becomes deaf during his or her career as a musician. Those with conductive type hearing impairment with perforated tympanic membranes but intact inner ear functions have fewer difficulties compared to those with sensori-neural type hearing impairment complicated by the inner ear or the central nervous system of a higher rank. Persons with conductive type hearing impairment can hear the sound well if the sound is made louder and conducted to the ear canal.


Tympanic Membrane Hearing Impairment Musical Instrument Bone Conduction Perforated Tympanic Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeo Kobayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyTeikyo UniversityIchihara, ChibaJapan
  2. 2.Ichihara HospitalIchihara, ChibaJapan

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