The adaptive immunological system of our body consists of both a cellular and a humoral immune reaction. Both reactions are closely connected, comprising of a big number of factors. The T-cells (T-helper-cells, cytotoxic T-cells) (cellular immunoreactivity) have to rely upon antigen-presenting cells with their major histocompatibility complex II; they attack intracellular procreating pathogens, form lymphokine, they can opsonate viruses, and stimulate B-cells and other T- cells. Furthermore, they regulate other components of the immunological system. B-cells react to cellularly procreating bacteria by synthesizing all kinds of immunoglobulines (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE) (humoral immunreactivity). Other important functions are performed by the inborn immunologic system, the complement system, and the phagocytizing cells. The principle of the immunological system is among others the detection and elimination of a foreign antigen, which has entered the body (bacterium, virus, parasite). The outstanding feature of our immunological system is its ability to distinguish between harmful foreign structures and the tissues and molecules of its own organism that need to be protected. In case of loss of this self-detection respectively in case of a dysfunction, namely a disorder of the regulating system within the auto-reactive immunocomponents, the development of an autoimmune disease is possible. This means that specific autoantigens formed by B-cells and/or sensitized lymphocytes, T-cells, but also natural killer-cells react against endogenous substances. Antibodies can be found in patients sera. This specific immunoreactivity can lead to cellysis respectively loss of tissue. Autoimmune diseases present a multifactorial occurrence.
KeywordsHearing Loss Sensorineural Hearing Loss Immunological System Sudden Hearing Loss Progressive Hearing Loss
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