Ear and Hearing Health Program

  • W. Suardana
  • Eka Putra Setiawan


The distribution of various ear diseases in Indonesia according to national survey done in 1994–1996, such as outer ear diseases was about 6.8%, middle ear diseases 3.9%, presbycusis in 2.6%, ototoxicity in about 0.3%, sudden deaf in 0.2% and profound hearing loss 0.1%. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) was highest prevalence of middle ear disease (3.0%) The prevalence of hard of hearing in the total population was 16.8% and profound bilateral hearing loss about 0.4%.


Hearing Loss Hearing Impairment Chronic Suppurative Otitis Medium National School Hearing Problem 
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    Department of Health of the Republic of Indonesia (1998) National Survey of Eye and Hearing Sense.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Department of Health of the Republic of Indonesia (1998) The Program Effort to Ear and Prevention of Hearing in the Primary Health Care.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suardana W at al. (1997) Survey of the Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in the Kubu District, Karangasem Regency. Survey Report.Google Scholar
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    Suardana W and Winata S (1993) Distribution of Congenital Deafness at Bengkala Village, Bali. The Journal of Indonesian Medical Association. 43: 5: 249–256.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suardana W: Supervision and Examination of The Pupil at National School for The Deaf and Sidakarya School for The Deaf. Survey Report. In Indonesia Language.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Suardana
    • 1
  • Eka Putra Setiawan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUdayana UniversityBaliIndonesia

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