The choroidal vascular system has been a focus of interest in recent attempts to interpret the pathological features of the choroid. The understanding of pathologic processes in the choroid requires an exact knowledge of normal anatomy.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Optic Nerve Head Blood Sugar Level Choroidal Vessel Posterior Ciliary Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bernstein MH, Hollenberg MJ (1965) Fine structure of the choriocapillaris and retinal capillaris. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 4:1016–1025Google Scholar
  2. Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (1995) Retinal vascular changes during aging in Wistar Kyoto rats. Application of corrosion cast and scanning electron microscopy. Ophthalmic Res 27:249–261Google Scholar
  3. Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (1997) Vascular changes in retinas of spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated by corrosion casts. Ophthalmic Res 29:12–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (2001a) Microvascular architecture of rat choroid: corrosion cast study. Anat Rec 264:63–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (2001b) Corrosion casts and scanning electron microscopy of choroidal vasculature in rats with inherited hypercholesterolemia. Curr Eye Res 23:240–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (2002) Choroidal vasculature changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats—transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with casts. Ophthalmic Res 34:54–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhutto IA, Lu ZY, Takami Y, Amemiya T (2002) Retinal and choroidal vasculature in rats with spontaneous diabetes type2 treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Cilazapril: corrosion cast and electron microscopic study. Ophthalmic Res 34:220–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cao J, McLeod DS, Merges CA, Lutty GA (1998) Choriocapillaries degeneration and related pathologic changes in human diabetic eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 116:589–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen MP (1940) Chorioretinal arteriolar necrosis in malignant hypertension. Arch Ophthalmol 23:1052–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Venecia G, Wallow I, Houser D, Wahlstrom M (1980) The eye in accelerated hypertension. I. Elsching’s spots in nonhuman primates. Arch Ophthalmol 98:913–918Google Scholar
  11. Duke-Elder S, Wybar KC (1961) The blood vessels of the eye. In Duke-Elder S (ed) System of Ophthalmology, vol 2. Henry Kimpton, London pp 339–362Google Scholar
  12. Edward LH Jr, Rao NA (1996) Vascular diseases: basic mechanism in pathology. In: Spencer WH (ed) Ophthalmic pathology: an atlas and textbook, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 3010–3013Google Scholar
  13. Friedman E, Smith TR, Kuwabara T, Beyer CCK (1964) Choroidal vascular patterns in hypertension. Arch Ophthalmol 71:842–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FryczKowsky AW, Sato E, Hodes BL (1988) Changes in the diabetic choroidal vasculature: scanning electron microscopy findings. Ann Ophthalmol 20:299–305Google Scholar
  15. Fukuda M, Matsusaka T (1977) Angioarchitecture of the choroid in guinea pig eyes. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 81:688–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fulcher T, Beigi B, Eustace P, Bannigan J (1996) Early changes in the choroidal vasculature of rats occurring with experimentally induced hypertension. Ophthalmic Res 28:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Funk R, Rohen JW (1985) Comparative morphological studies on blood vessels in eyes of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Exp Eye Res 40:191–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Funk R, Rohen JW (1987) SEM studies on the functional morphology of the rabbit ciliary process vasculature. Exp Eye Res 45:579–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greene EC (1963) Anatomy of the rat. Hafner, New York, p 184Google Scholar
  20. Harry J, Ashton N (1963) The pathology of hypertensive retinopathy. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 83:71–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayreh SS (1964) The orbital vessels of rhesus monkeys. Exp Eye Res 3:16–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayreh SS (1974) The choriocapillaris. Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 192:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayreh SS (1975) Segmental nature of the choroidal vasculature. Br J Ophthalmol 59:631–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hidayat AA, Fine BS (1985) Diabetic choroidpathy. Light and electron microscopic observations of seven cases. Ophthalmology 92:512–522Google Scholar
  25. Hogan MJ, Alvarado JA, Weddell JE (1971) Histology of the human eye. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 320Google Scholar
  26. Hori S, Nishida T, Mukai Y, Pomeroy M, Mukai N (1980) Ultrastructural studies on choroidal vessels streptozotocin-diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 29:211–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kohler T, Leiser R (1983) Blood vessels of the bovine chorioidea. A scanning electron microscopic study. Acta Anat 116:55–61Google Scholar
  28. Kuwabara T, Cogan DG (1963) Retinal vascular patterns. IV. Mural cells of the retinal capillaris. Arch Ophthalmol 69:492–502Google Scholar
  29. Laties AM, Jacobowitz D (1966) A comparative study of the autonomic innervation of the eye in monkey, cat and rabbit. Anat Rec 156:383–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazzari M, Franceschini V, Minelli G, Ciani F (1993) Choroidal and iris angioarchitecture of the newt: a scanning electron microscopic study of vascular corrosion casts. Experientia 49:277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsusaka T (1976) Angioarchitecture of the choroid. Jpn J Ophthalmol 20:330–346Google Scholar
  32. McLeod DS, Lutty GA (1994) High-resolution histologic analysis of the human choroidal vasculature. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35:3799–3811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Miyamura N, Bhutto IA, Amemiya T (1999) Retinal capillary changes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (spontaneously diabetic strain). Electron microscopic study. Ophthalmic Res 31:358–366Google Scholar
  34. Morrison JC, Fraunfelder FW, Miline ST, Moore CG (1995) Limbal microvasculature of the rat eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36:751–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Olver JM (1990) Functional anatomy of the choroidal circulation: methyl methacrylate casting of human choroid. Eye 4:262–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ring HG, Fujino T (1967) Observations on the anatomy and pathology of the choroidal vasculature. Arch Ophthalmol 78:431–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Risco JM, Grimson BS, Johnson PJ (1981) Angioarchitecture of ciliary artery circulation of the posterior pole. Arch Ophthalmol 99:864–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shimizu K, Ujiie K (eds) (1978) Structure of ocular vessels. Igaku-Shoin TokyoGoogle Scholar
  39. Sugiyama K, Bacon DR, Morrison JC, Van Buskirk EM (1992) Optic nerve head microvasculature of the rabbit eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33:2251–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sugiyama K, Cioffi GA, Bacon DR, Von Buskirk EM (1994) Optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microvasculature in the primate. J Glaucoma 3:S45–S54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sugiyama K, Gu Z, Kawase C, Yamamoto T, Kitazawa Y (1999) Optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microvasculature of the rat eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:3084–3090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Torczynski E, Tso MOM (1976) The architecture of the choriocapillaris at the posterior pole. Am J Ophthalmol 81:428–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tso MOM, Jampol LM (1982) Pathophysiology of hypertensive retinopathy. Ophthalmology 89:1132–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Buskirk EM (1979) The canine eye: the vessels of aqueous drainage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 18:223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wallow IH, Burnside B (1980) Actin filaments in retinal pericytes and endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 19:1433–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Weiter JJ, Ernest JT (1974) Anatomy of the choroidal vasculature. Am J Ophthalmol 78:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wong VG, Macri FJ (1964) Vasculature of the cat eye. Arch Ophthalmol 72:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Woodlief NF, Eifrig DE (1982) Initial observations on the ocular microcirculation in man: the choriocapillaris. Ann Ophthalmol 14:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Yamagami K, Maeda S, Yoshimoto H (1980) Changes in choroidal circulation and retinal pigment epithelium in SHRSP (abstract). Jpn Heart J 21:606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yamakawa K, Bhutto IA, Lu Z, Watanabe Y, Amemiya T (2001) Retinal vascular changes in rats with inherited hypercholesterolemia: corrosion cast demonstration. Curr Eye Res. 22:256–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yoneya S, Tso MOM (1987) Angioarchitecture of the human choroid. Arch Ophthalmol 105:681–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yoshimoto H, Murata M, Yamagami K, Matsuyama S (1980) Studies on the angioarchitecture of the posterior choroid in rat and role of posterior ciliary vein. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 19:1245–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsugio Amemiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations