As already described, the uterus is essentially an unsuitable organ for endoscopic procedures: without mechanical dilatation, the isthmus is too narrow to introduce the endoscope; the uterine cavity is virtual, i.e., the two thick and rigid walls are in proximity with a narrow space; also, the endometrium is extremely fragile and easily hemorrhages on slight contact. To attain a distinct panoramic visualization using hysteroscopy, satisfactory uterine distension by positive pressure of a transparent medium and elimination of the blood, mucus, and debris that obstruct the view are required. The principles of panoramic hysteroscopy depend on interpretation of the location, extension, shape, contours, relief, colors, vasculature, consistency, and mobility of the lesions within the uterus. Most commonly used modern panoramic hysteroscopes can be divided into two major types: the rigid type and flexible type of instrument, according to the method of image transmission. Each has advantages and disadvantages, as shown in Table 1. The basic equipment of diagnostic hysteroscopy consists of four items: the hysteroscope, a light source, a light-transmitting glass fiber cable, and a suitable recording device (still cameras and video cameras).
KeywordsFiber Bundle Endometrial Carcinoma Uterine Cavity Biopsy Forceps Diagnostic Hysteroscopy
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