Is subpulmonic ventricular septal defect an Oriental disease?

  • Hung-Chi Lue


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring as an isolated or prime lesion in 20%–30% of all infants and children with congenital heart disease in Western countries [1–3] as well as in Japan [4]. A study of 3891 Chinese infants and children with congenital heart disease also showed a similar frequency of 31.2% (Table 1). VSD occurs as a result of deficiency of ventricular substance or of fusion failure between each of the four developmental components of the ventricular septum, namely: (1) the conus or muscular outlet septum; (2) membranous septum; (3) sinus or muscular inlet septum; and (4) muscular trabecular septum (Fig. 1) [5]. To identify clinically and specifically conus, membranous, sinus, or trabecular septal defects is usually difficult, except in patients whose cardiac murmur is characteristically blowing and pansystolic, best heard in the second and third left interspaces, allowing clinicians to label it as conus septal defect or so-called subpulmonic VSD [6–8]. Since the introduction of powerful biplane cineangiocardiography and more recently of 2-D echocardiography, precise identification of the type of VSD has become not only clinically possible but also necessary, particularly so when corrective surgery is contemplated [6–11].


Congenital Heart Disease Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septum Membranous Septum 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hung-Chi Lue
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsNational Taiwan University College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

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