Endoscopic and Imaging Assessment of Esophageal Varices

  • Fabrizio Cardin
  • P. Aiden McCormick
  • Andrew K. Burroughs


Esophageal varices are dilated veins located mainly in the submucosa of the esophagus and extending upwards from the gastroesophageal junction. In 1934 Kegaries [1] first studied this venous system and network of veins in the inferior part of the esophageal mucosa. In 1951 Butler [2] produced a more detailed account of the microvascular venous anatomy, demonstrating the connection of subepithelial and submucosal plexuses of the lower esophagus. These studies used anatomical specimens. Later indirect visualization of esophageal varices was obtained with the barium swallow examination. However only with the development of endoscopy has it been possible to make direct assessment of size, extent, and appearance of varices.


Portal Hypertension Cirrhotic Patient Esophageal Varix Gastric Varix Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizio Cardin
  • P. Aiden McCormick
  • Andrew K. Burroughs
    • 1
  1. 1.Hepato-biliary and Liver Transplantation UnitRoyal Free Hospital School of MedicineHampstead, LondonUK

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