• Hyman J. Zimmerman
  • James H. Lewis
  • Chris Kassianides


Portal hypertension plays a dominant role in the clinical recognition and life history of cirrhosis, and cirrhosis plays a dominant role in the causation of portal hypertension [1]. The clinician suspects the presence of cirrhosis in the patient with biochemical or clinical evidence of hepatic parenchymal disease accompanied by portal hypertension; the hypertension affects clinical manifestations and often the outcome of the cirrhosis. In the patient whose clinical features are those of portal hypertension, by far the most likely cause is cirrhosis. Nevertheless, cirrhosis may be present with little or no collateral evidence of portal hypertension and portal hypertension may, of course, have causes other than cirrhosis. Indeed, in adults 10%–15% of cases of clinically evident portal hypertension are due to causes other than cirrhosis [2]; in children, of course, a far greater proportion of cases is not due to cirrhosis. Also, in India, the “noncirrhotic” form accounts for a larger proportion of cases of portal hypertension. The prominence of portal hypertension among the manifestations of cirrhosis differs between the various etiologic categories of cirrhosis and from patient to patient, even within one category.


Portal Hypertension Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Esophageal Varix Variceal Bleeding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyman J. Zimmerman
  • James H. Lewis
  • Chris Kassianides
    • 1
  1. 1.Armed Forces Institute of PathologyGeorge Washington University, Georgetown UniversityUSA

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