Advertisement

Microscopic Anatomy of the Intrahepatic Circulatory System

  • P. Bioulac-Sage
  • J. Saric
  • C. Balabaud

Abstract

The liver in mammals has a dual blood supply. Approximately 80% of the blood entering the liver is mildly oxygenated venous blood supplied by the portal vein, while the remainder is well oxygenated and supplied by the hepatic artery. Within the liver distributing branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery run parallel and, after repeated branching, terminal branches of these vessels (portal venules and hepatic arterioles) supply blood to the hepatic sinusoids. The sinusoids are the principal vessels involved in the transvascular exchange between the blood and parenchymal cells. Branches of hepatic arterioles also supply blood to the liver capsule as well as the bile ducts, where they feed a peribiliary plexus of capillaries which, in turn, drains into the sinusoids. Portal and arterial blood flowing through the sinusoids is collected in small branches of hepatic veins (central or terminal hepatic venules) through which the blood is returned via larger hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava. Lymphatic vessels originate as blind-ending capillaries in the connective tissue spaces (portal tracts) close to the portal veins and hepatic arteries. The fluid contained in these lymphatic vessels flows toward the hepatic hilus and eventually into the cysterna chyli.

Keywords

Portal Vein Hepatic Vein Kupffer Cell Portal Tract Portal Venule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rappaport AM (1987) Physioanatomic considerations. In: Schiff L, Schiff ER (eds) Diseases of the liver. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lamers WH, Hilberts A, Furt E, Smith J, Jonges GN, Van Noorden CJF, Janzen JWG, Charles R, Moorman AFM (1989) Hepatic enzymic zonation: A reevaluation of the concept of the liver acinus. Hepatology 10: 72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matsumoto T, Kawakami M (1982) The unit-concept of hepatic parenchyma: A reexamination based on angio architectural studies. Acta Pathol Jpn 32: 285–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lindros K (1985) Digitonin-collagenase perfusion for efficient separation of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes. Biochem J 228: 757–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Quistorff B, Chance B (1987) Redox scanning in the study of metabolic zonation of liver. In: Thurman RG, Kauffman FC, Jungermann K (eds) Regulation of hepatic metabolism, intra-and intercellular compartmentation. Plenum, New York, pp 185–209Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balabaud C, Boulard A, Quinton A, Saric J, Bedin C, Boussarie L, Bioulac-Sage P (1988) Light and transmission microscopy of sinusoids in human liver. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease. Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 87–110Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blouin A, Bolender RP, Weibel ER (1977) Distribution of organelles and membranes between hepatocytes and non hepatocytes in the rat liver parenchyma: A stereological study. J Cell Biol 72: 441–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wisse E, De Zanger RB, Jacobs R, McCuskey RS (1983) Scanning electron microscope observations on the structure of portal veins, sinusoids and central veins in rat liver. Scanning electron microscopy III. AMF O’Hare, Chicago, pp 1441-1452Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fraser R, Day WA, Fernando NS (1986) Review: The liver sinusoidal cells. Their role in disorders of the liver, lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Pathology 18: 5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horn T, Christoffersen P, Henriksen JH (1987) Alcoholic liver injury: Defenestration in noncirrhotic livers. A scanning electron microscopy study. Hepatology 7: 77–82Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gendrault JL, Steffan AM, Bingen A, Kirn A (1988) Kupffer and endothelial cells. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease, Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 17–38Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wisse E, De Zanger RB, Charels K, Van der Smissen P, McCuskey RS (1985) The liver sieve: Considerations concerning the structure and function of endothelial fenestrae, the sinusoidal wall and the space of Disse. Hepatology 55: 683–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bouwens L, Backeland M, De Zanger R, Wisse E (1986) Quantitation, tissue distribution and proliferation kinetics of Kupffer cells in normal rat liver. Hepatology 6: 718–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones A, Summerfield JA (1988) Kupffer cells. In: Arias IM, Jakoby WB, Popper H, Schachter D, Shafritz DA (eds) The liver biology and pathobiology. Raven, New York, pp 683–704Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wardle EN (1987) Kupffer cells and their function. Liver 7: 63–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wake K (1980) Perisinusoidal stellate cells (fat-storing cells, interstitial cells, lipocytes), their related structure in and around the liver sinusoids, and vitamin A-storing cells in extrahepatic organs. Int Rev Cytol 66: 303–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bioulac-Sage P, Lafon ME, Le Bail B, Balabaud C (1988) Perisinusoidal and pit cells in liver sinusoids. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease. Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 39–62Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wake K (1988) Liver perivascular cells revealed by gold and silver impregnation methods and electron microscopy. In: Motta P (ed) Biopathology of the liver. Kluwer, Boston, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hendricks HFJ, Brouwer A, Knook DL (1987) The role of hepatic fat-storing (stellate) cells in retinoid metabolism. Hepatology 7: 1368–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clement B, Grimaud JA, Campion JP, Deugnier Y, Guillouzo A (1986) Cell types involved in collagen and fibronectin production in normal and fibrotic human liver. Hepatology 6: 225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clement B, Gripon P, Guguen-Guillouzo C, Guillouzo A (1988) Interaction of cells and extracellular matrix in the liver. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease. Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 111–137Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaneda K, Dan C, Wake K (1983) Pit cells as natural killer cells. Biomed Res 4: 567–576Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peyrol S, Grimaud JA (1988) Perisinusoidal connective matrix. Immunohistochemical mapping of the major matricial components. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease. Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 323–340Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bioulac-Sage P, Lafon ME, Balabaud C (1990) Nerves and perisinusoidal cells in human liver. J Hepatol 10: 105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCuskey RS (1971) Sphincters in the microvascular system. Microvasc Res 2: 428–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ohtani O, Kikuta A, Ohtsuka A, Taguchi T, Murakami T (1983) Microvasculature as studied by the microvascular corrosion casting/scanning electron microscope method: I. Endocrine and digestive system. Arch Histol Jpn 46: 1–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grjsham JW, Nopanitaya I (1981) Scanning electron microscopy of casts of hepatic microvessels: Review of methods and results. In: Lautt WW (ed) Hepatic circulation in health and disease. Raven, New York, pp 87–107Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Conway JG, Popp JA, Thurman RG (1985) Microcirculation in periportal and pericentral regions of lobule in perfused rat liver. Am J Physiol 249: G449–G454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCuskey RS (1983) The hepatic microvascular system. In: Koo A, Lam SK, Smaje LH (eds) Microcirculation of alimentary tract. World Science, Singapore, pp 57–68Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller DL, Zanolli CS, Gumucio JJ (1979) Quantitative morphology of the sinusoids of the hepatic acinus. Gastroenterology 76: 965–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wisse E, De Zanger RB (1980) On the morphology and other aspects of Kupffer cells functions: Observations and speculations concerning pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In: Liehr H, Grun M (eds) The reticuloendothelial system and the pathogenesis of liver disease, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Traber PG, Chianela J, Gumucio JJ (1988) Physiologic significance and regulation of hepatocellular heterogeneity. Gastroenterology 95: 1130–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCuskey RS (1988) Hepatic microcirculation. In: Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C (eds) Sinusoids in human liver: Health and disease. Kupffer Cell Foundation. Rijswijk, pp 151–164Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oda M, Tsukada N, Honda K (1987) Hepatic sinusoidal endothelium: Its functional implications in the regulation of sinusoidal blood flow. In: Tsuchiya M, Asano M, Mishama Y, Oda M (eds) Microcirculation: An update. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 317–320Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wisse E, McCuskey RS (1986) On the interactions of blood cells with the sinusoidal wall as observed by in vivo microscopy of the rat liver. In: Kirn A, Knook DL, Wisse E (eds) Cells of hepatic sinusoids. Kupffer Cell Foundation, Rijswijk, pp 447–482Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koo A (1987) Nervous control of the hepatic microcirculation. In: Tsuchiya M, Asano M, Mishama Y, Oda M (eds) Microcirculation: An update. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 335–338Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nakata J, Leong GF, Brauer RW (1961) Direct measurement of blood pressures in minute vessels of the liver. Am J Physiol 199: 1181–1188Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rappaport AM (1977) Microcirculatory units in the mammalian liver. Bib Anat 16: 116–120Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McCuskey RS, Reilly FD, McCuskey PA (1979) “In vivo” microscopic studies of the hepatic microvascular system. Bib Anat 18: 73–76Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chazouillères O, Ballet F, Chrétien Y, Marteau P, Rey C, Maillard D, Poupon R (1989) Protective effect of vasodilators on liver function after long hypothermic preservation: A study in the isolated perfused rat liver. Hepatology 9: 824–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ontell SJ, Makowka L, Ove P, Starzl TE (1988) Improved hepatic function in the 24-hour preserved rat liver with UW-lactobionate solution and SRI 63-441. Gastroenterology 95: 1617–1624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bhathall PS, Grossman HJ (1985) Reduction of the increased portal vascular resistance of the isolated perfused cirrhotic rat liver by vasodilators. J Hepatol 1: 325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Blei AT (1989) Vasodilator therapy of portal hypertension: Focus on the liver. Hepatology 9: 896–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rojkind M, Greenwel P (1988) The liver as a bioecological system. In: Arias IM, Jakoby WB, Popper H, Schachter D, Shafritz DA (eds) The liver biology and pathobiology. Raven, New York, pp 1269–1285Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Bioulac-Sage
  • J. Saric
  • C. Balabaud
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Interactions CellulairesUniversité de Bordeaux IIBordeaux CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations