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Phonosurgery pp 141-155 | Cite as

Surgery to Elevate Vocal Pitch

  • Nobuhiko Isshiki

Abstract

Excessively low vocal pitch found in women is assoicated frequently with the side effects of hormonal drugs, such as anabolic or male hormones, and less frequently with hormonal diseases, such as adrenogenital syndrome, Addison’s disease, my oedema, and acromegaly. It is often referred to as androphonia. It can also be caused by reduced activity of the cricothyroid muscle or, less significantly though, of the strap muscle. It the pitch is too low and the patient wants it corrected, surgery may be indicated. Transsexuals often desire raising of their vocal pitch. Before deciding whether surgery is indicated, complete understanding and consensus are necessary between the patient and the surgeon regarding the probable outcome of surgery.

Keywords

Vocal Cord Anterior Commissure Thyroid Cartilage Cricoid Cartilage Cricothyroid Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobuhiko Isshiki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic Surgery, School of MedicineKyoto UniversityJapan

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