Intracellular Calcium Mechanism in the Pathogenesis of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

  • Shigeto Yamawaki
  • Teruo Hayashi


Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), a potentially lethal adverse effect of neuroleptics, characterized by hyperthermia, severe autonomic dysregulation, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and laboratory evidence of rhabdomyolysis, has gained widespread recognition in recent years. Various conceptual pathogenetic models of this disorder have been developed, such as a dopamine (DA) receptor blockade hypothesis [1–3], a relative noradrenaline(NA)/DA excess hypothesis [4,5], a serotonin 5-hydroxtryptamine (5-HT)/DA imbalance hypothesis [6], a glutamate/ DA imbalance hypothesis [7], a gama amino butyric acid (GABA) deficiency hypothesis [8], and an opiate hypothesis [9]; but the pathogenetic mechanism underlying NMS remains unclear.


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Malignant Hyperthermia Dantrolene Sodium BioI Psychiatry Hypermetabolic State 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shigeto Yamawaki
    • 1
  • Teruo Hayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and NeurosciencesHiroshima University School of MedicineMinami-ku, Hiroshima 734Japan

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