The description of liver cancer in the second century A.D. by the Greek physicians Galen and Aretaeus is cited as the oldest record of this tumor . Morgagni  has been referred to as a pioneer of pathological anatomy; his work ushered in the dawn of medicine in a true sense, and he also left his mark on liver cancer research. The case of liver cancer he reported, however, was associated with tumors in the stomach and spleen, suggesting a metastatic origin . Virchow , who has been called the father of modern pathology, gave a detailed description of the difference between primary liver cancer and metastatic liver cancer. Von Hanseman , who reviewed a total of 258 cases of malignant tumor in the liver at the Berlin Pathological Institute, demonstrated that in Europe the incidence of primary liver cancer was far lower than that of metastatic liver cancer. The gross classification of primary liver cancer was further developed by Hanot and Gilbert  in 1888 and Eggel  in 1901. In 1911, Yamagiwa  and Goldzieher and Bokay  classified primary liver cancer on the basis of histology. In particular, the classification by Yamagiwa, in which a hepatoma arising from a hepatocyte was differentiated from a cholangioma arising from bile duct epithelium, remained in use throughout the world until quite recently. Outstanding research in this field by Berman  and Edmondson and Steiner [9, 10], formed the basis for current investigation of primary liver cancer.