Intraoperative Metallic Thrombosis of Carotid-Cavernous Fistula
It has long been known that red blood cells, white blood cells, and fibrinogen are negatively charged at the normal pH of blood. It is also known that white blood cells and washed platelets migrate to the positive pole in an electrophoretic cell [1, 10]. Thus, the intravascular presence of a metal with a high dissociation constant of positively charged metallic ions, such as Fe2+, Cu2+, and Be2+, should attract these negatively charged intravascular elements to form a thrombus; this reaction should be enhanced by passage of an anodal current through the metal. The earliest attempts to apply this logic to the formation of an intravascular thrombus were made independently by Velpeau in 1831  and Phillips in 1832 , who described a method of occluding an artery by introducing needles into the lumen and withdrawing the needles after a thrombus had formed about them. Velpeau  and Phillips  both suggested that this method might be utilized in the treatment of aneurysms. Moore and Murchison  first reported insertion of a permanent wire into an aneurysmal sac to create an intrasaccular thrombus.
KeywordsCarotid Artery Copper Wire Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Superior Ophthalmic Vein Bilateral Fistula
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