Advertisement

Ductal Adenocarcinoma

  • Parviz M. Pour
  • Yoichi Konishi
  • Günter Klöppel
  • Daniel S. Longnecker

Keywords

Pancreatic Cancer Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Duct Acinar Cell Pancreatic Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cubilla AI, Fizgerald PJ (1984) Malignant neoplasms in tumors of the exocrine pancreas. Atlas of tumor pathology, Second Series Fascicle 19. AFIP, Washington DC, pp 109–233Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Klöppel G (1984) Pancreatic non-endocrine tumours in pancreatic pathology. In: Klöppel G, Heitz PU (eds) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 79–113Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morohoshi T, Shimizu K, Kanda M (1991) Pancreatic tumors—their pathology and morpho-genesis. Jpn J Cancer Dig Org 1: 556–562Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saito Y (1990) Annual report of pancreatic cancers registered at Japan Pancreatic Society. Japanese Pancreatic Cancer RegistrationGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Watanabe, S (1992) Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in pancreatic tumor. In: Takeuchi M, Honnma T (eds) Nakayama-Shoten, Tokyo, pp 39–52Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HSM721101), 1968Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T (1993) Cancer statistics. J Am Cancer Soc 43: 7–26Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fraumeni JF (1975) Cancer of the pancreas and biliary tract: Epidemiological considerations. Cancer Res 35: 3437–3446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kovi J, Heshmat MY (1973) Incidence of cancer in Negroes in Washington DC and selected African cities. Am J Epidemiol 95: 401–413Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mack TM, Paganini-Hill A (1981) Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Los Angeles. Cancer 47: 14741484Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moynan RW, Neerhour R, Johnson TS (1964) Pancreatic carcinoma in children: Case-report and review. J Pediatr 65: 711–720Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taxy JB (1976) Adenonarcinoma of the pancreas in childhood. Cancer 37: 1508–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsukimoto I, Watanabe K, Lin JB, Nakajima T (1973) Pancreatic carcinoma in children in Japan. Cancer 31: 1203–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith PE, Krementz ET, Reid RJ, Bulkin WJ (1967) An analysis of 600 with carcinoma of the pancreas. Surg Gynecol Obstet 124: 1288–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ivy EJ, Sarr MG, Reiman HM (1990) Nonendocrine cancer of the pancreas in patients under age forty years. Surgery 108: 481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andrén-Sandberg A (1989) Androgen influence on exocrine pancreatic cancer. Int J Pancreatol 7: 167–176Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Longnecker DS, Roebuck BD, Yager JD Jr, Lilja HS, Siegmund B (1981) Pancreatic carcinoma in azaserine-treated rats: induction, classification and dietary modulation of incidence. Cancer 1562–1572Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lhoste F, Roebuck BD, Brinck-Johansen T,Longnecker DS (1987). Effect of castration and hormone replacement on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in male and female Fischer rats. Carcinogenesis 8: 699–703Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meijers M, Visser CJT, KlijnJGM, Lamberts SWJ, Garderen-Hoetmer FH, de Jong JA, Foeskens, Woutersen RA (1992) Effect of orchiectomy alone or in combination with testosterone and cyproterone acetate on exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats and hamsters. Int J Pancreatol 137–164Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Corishley TP, Iqbal MJ, Wilkinson ML, Williams RS (1986) Androgen receptor in human normal and malignant pancreatic tissue and cell lines. Cancer 57: 1992–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greenway BA, Iqbal MJ, Johnson PJ, Williams RS (1982) Estrogen receptor proteins in malignant and fetal pancreas. Br J Surg 69: 293–296Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Birt DF, Salmasi S, Pour PM (1981) Enhancement of experimental pancreatic cancer in Syrian golden hamsters by dietary fat. J Natl Cancer Inst 67: 1327–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hirayama T (1981) A large-scale cohort study on the relationship between diet and selected cancers of digestive organs. In: WB Bruce, P Correa, M Lipkin, SR Tannenbaum, TD Wilkins (eds) Banbury Report 7. Gastrointestinal cancer: endogenous factors. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, pp 409–429Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mack TM, Yu MC, Hanisch R, Henderson BE (1986) Pancreas cancer and smoking, beverage consumption and past medical history. J Natl Cancer Inst 76: 49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tomioka T, Andrén-Sandberg A, Fujii H, Egami H, Takiyama Y, Pour PM (1990) Comparative histopathological findings in the pancreas of cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Cancer Lett 55: 121–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feron VJ, Kuper CF, Spit BJ, Reuzel PG, Woutersen RA (1985) Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis. Carcinog Compr Sury 8: 93–118Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pour PM, Kazakoff K, Carlson K (1990) Inhibition of Streptozotocin-induced islet cell tumors and BOP-induced exogenous pancreatic tumors in Syrian hamsters. Cancer Res 50: 1634–1639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bell RH, Strayer DS (1983) Streptozotocin prevents development of nitrosamine-induced pancreatic cancer in the Syrian hamster. J Surg Oncol 24: 258–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cerosimo E, Pisters P, Pesola G, McDermot K, Bajorunas D, Brenann MF (1991) Insulin secretion and action in patient with pancreatic cancer. Cancer 67: 468–493Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Permert J, Ihse I, Jorfeldt L, von Schenk H, Arnqvist HJ, Larsson J (1993) Pancreatic cancer is associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Eur J Surg 159: 101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Permert J, Larsson J, Ihse I, Pour PM (1991) Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Alteration of glucose metabolism. Int J Pancreatol 9: 113–117Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Permert J, Adrian TE, Jacobsson P, Jorfeld L, Fruin B, Larsson J (1993) Is profound peripheral insulin resistance in patients with pancreatic cancer caused by a tumor-associated factor. Am J Surg 16: 119–124Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    The Registrar General’s Decennial Supplement (1985) England and Wales, 1951, Part II, Occupational Mortality. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London 20Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doerken H (1964) Einige Daten bei 280 Patienten mit Pankreaskrebs. Gastroenterologia 10: 47–77Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Turner HM, Grace HG (1938) An investigation into cancer mortality among males in certain Sheffield trades. J Hyg 38: 90–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mancuso TF, El-Attar AA (1967) Cohort study of workers exposed to betanaphtylamine and benzidine. J Occup Med 9: 277–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anonymous (1974) Study finds cancer-woodworking tie. Eng News Rec 195: 15Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li FP, Fraumeni JF, Mantel N, Miller RW (1969) Cancer mortality among chemists. J Natl Cancer Inst 43: 1159–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pour PM, Runge RG, Birt D, Gingell R, Lawson T, Nagel D, Wallcave L (1981) Current knowledge of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster and its relevance to the human disease. Cancer 47: 1573–1587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Palmiter RD, Chen HY, Messing A, Brinster RL (1985) SV40 enhancer and large-T antigen are instrumental in development of choroid plexus tumors in transgenic mice. Nature 316: 457–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sandgren EP, Quaife CL, Paulovich AG, Palmiter RD (1991) Pancreatic tumor pathogenesis reflects the causative genetic lesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 93–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ceci JD, Kovattch RM, Swing DA, Jones JM, Snow CM, Rosenberg MP, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Meisler MH (1991) Transgenic mice carrying a murine amylase 2.2/SV40 T antigen fusion gene develop pancreatic acinar cell and stomach carcinomas. Oncogene 6: 323–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghadirian P, Boyle P, Simard J, Baillargeon J, Maisonneuve P, Perret C (1991) Reported family aggregation of pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study in the francophone community in Montreal, Canada. Int J Pancreatol 10: 183–196Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pour PM (1990) Is there a link between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In: Beger H, Büchler M (eds) Chronic pancreatitis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mizumoto K, Tsutsumi M, Kitazawa S, Tsujita S, Nakayama M, Tsujii T, Kanehiro H, Nakajima Y, Nakano H, Konishi Y (1990) Intraductal carcinoma in a surgically resected pancreas with chronic pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol 6:279–285Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Morohoshi T, Kunimura T, Kanda M, Takahasi H, Yagi H, Shimizu K, Nakayoshi A, Asanuma K (1990) Multiple carcinomata associated with anomalous arrangement of the biliary and pancreatic duct system. Acta Pathol Jpn 40: 755–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Maruchi N, Fortner JG (1973) Epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 645–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pour PM, Donnelly T (1978) The effect of cholecystoduodenostomy and choledochostomy in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 38: 2048–2051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pour PM, Donnelly T, Stepan K (1983) Modification of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. 5. Effect of partial pancreatico-colostomy. Carcinogenesis 10: 1327–1331Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Konishi Y, Mizumoto K, Kitazawa S, Tsujiuchi T, Tsutsumi M, Kamano T (1990) Early ductal lesions of pancreatic carcinogenesis in animals and humans. Int J Pancreatol 7: 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mizumoto K, Inagaki T, Koizumi M, Uemura M, Ogawa M, Kitazawa S, Tsutsumi M, Toyokawa M, Konishi Y (1988) Early pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma. Human Pathology 19: 242–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mukada T, Yamada S (1982) Dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the exocrine pancreas. Tohoku J Exp Med 137: 115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nakao A, Ichihara T, Nonami T, Harada A, Koshikawa T, Nakashima N, Nagura H, Takagi H (1989) Clinicohistopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of intrapancreatic development of carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Ann Surg 209: 181–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pour PM, Sayed S, Sayed G, Wolf GL (1982) Hyperplastic, preneoplastic, and neoplastic lesions found in 83 human pancreases. Am J Clin Path 77: 137–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pour PM (1984) Histogenesis of exocrine pancreatic cancer in the hamster model. Eviron Health Perspect 56: 229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pour PM (1988) Mechanism of pseudoductular (tubular) formation during pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. Am J Pathol 130: 335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Toshkov I, Kirev T, Bannasch P (1991) Virus-induced pancreatic cancer in Guinea Fowl: An electron microscopic study. Int J Pancreatol 10: 51–64Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Longnecker DS, Shinozuka H, Dekker A (1988) Focal acinar cell dysplasia in human pancreas. Cancer 45: 534–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Longnecker DS, Hashida Y, Shinozuka H (1980) Relationship of age to prevalence of focal acinar cell dysplasia in the human pancreas. J Natl Cancer Inst 65: 63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shinozuka H, Lee R, Dunn JL, Longneckaer DS (1980) Multiple atypical acinar cell nodules of the exocrine pancreas. Hum Pathol 11: 389–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tanaka T, Mori H, Williams GM (1988) Atypical and neoplastic acinar cell lesions of the pancreas in an autopsy study of Japanese patients. Cancer 61: 2278–2285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kodama T, Mori W (1983) Atypical acinar cell nodules of the human pancreas. Acta Pathol Jpn 33: 701–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pour PM (1985) Induction of unusual pancreatic neoplasms with morphologic similarity to human tumors and evidence for their ductal/ductular cell origin. Cancer 55: 2411–2416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Howard JM, Jordan GL Jr (1977) Cancer of the pancreas. Curr Probl Cancer 2: 5: 52Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    McDonald JS, Wilderlite L, Schein PS (1977) Biology, diagnosis and chemotherapeutic management of pancreatic malignancy. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 14: 107–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moertel CG (1973) Exocrine pancreas. In: Holland JF, Frei E III (eds) Cancer medicine. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gambill EE (1970) Pancreatic and ampullary carcinoma: Diagnosis and prognosis in relation to symptoms, physical findings, and elapse of time as observed in 255 patients. South Med J 63:1119— 1122Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moossa AR, Lewis MH, Bowie JD (1980) Clinical features and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In: Moossa AR (ed) Tumors of the pancreas. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 429–442Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fitzgerald PJ, Fortner JG, Watson RC, Schwartz MK, Sherlock P, Benua RS, Cubilla AL, Shottenfeld D, Miller D, Winawer SL, Lightdale CJ, Leidner SD, Nisselbaum JS, Menendez-Botet CJ, Poleski MM (1978) The value of diagnostic aids in detecting pancreas cancer. Cancer 41: 868–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Go VL, Taylor WF, DiMagno EP (1981) Efforts at early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: The Mayo Clinic experience. Cancer 3: 1698–1703Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tournat R, Allan BJ, White TT (1978) Cancer, pancreatitis, and detection of isoenzymes of DNASE, RNASE, and amylase. Clin Chem Acta 88: 345–353Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lake-Bakaar G, McKavnagh S, Summerfield JA (1979) Urinary immunoreactive trypsin excretion: a non-invasive screening test for pancreatic cancer. Lancet 2: 878–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nakane H, Yoshida M Murakami T (1979) Assessment of the clinical usefulness of serum ribonuclease assays: an indicator for the detection of pancreatic cancer. J Jpn Soc Gastroenterol 14: 55–62Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Weickmann JL, Olson EM, Glitz DG (1984) Immunological assay of pancreatic ribonuclease in serum as an indicator of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res 44: 1682–1687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Douglas AP, Chandler C (1978) Galactosyl transferase isoenzymes for screening of patients with cancer and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Gastroenterology 74: 11–20Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nishida K, Sugiura M, Yoshikawa T, Kondo M (1981) Enzyme immunoassay of pancreatic oncofetal antigen ( PUA) as a marker of pancreatic cancer. Gut 26: 450–455Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nevalainen TJ, Eskola JU, Aho AJ, Havia VT, Lövgren TN-E, Näntö V (1985) Immunoreactive phospholipase A2 in serum in acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Clin Chem 31: 1116–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hamano H, Hayakawa T, Kondo T (1987) Serum immunoreactive elastase in diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. A sensitive marker for pancreatic cancer. Dig Dis Sci 32: 50–56Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vezzadini P, Sterwiwi C, Gullo L, Bonora G, Campione O, Marrano P, Labo G (1984) Effect of secretin stimulation upon serum immunoreactive trypsin in patients with carcinoma of the pancreas. Surg Gynecol Obstet 158: 319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Podolsky DK, Weiser MM (1978) Galactosyl transferase isozyme II: Correlation with extent of gastrointestinal malignancy and prediction of recurrence. Gastroenterology 74: 1140Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Niitsu Y (1980) Serum ferritin and malignancy. Rinsho Ketsueki (Clin Hematol) 21: 1135–1143Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fateh-Moghadam A, Matel W, Nej meier D, Hannig C, Kristin M, Otte M (1978) The significance of beta 2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of the carcinoma of the pancreas. Klin Wochenschr 56: 267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Holyoke ED, Douglass HO, Goldrosen MH, Chu TM (1979) Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol 6: 347–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nakamura RM, Plow EF, Edington TS (1978) Current status of carcinoembryonic antigen ( CEA) and CEA-S assays in the evaluation of neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Clin Lab Sci 8: 4–10Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    McIntire KR, Waldmann TA, Moertel GG, Go VLW (1975) Serum fetoprotein in pateints with neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Res 35: 991–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Banwo O, Versey J, Hobbs JR (1974) New oncofetal antigen for human pancreas. Lancet 643645Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mihas AA (1978) Immunologic studies on a pancreatic oncofetal protein. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 1439–1444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Klavins JV (1981) Tumor markers of pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 47: 1597–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fujii Y, Albers GHR, Carre-Llopis A, Escribano MJ (1987) The diagnostic value of the foetoacinar pancreatic (FAP) protein in cancer of the pancreas; a comparative study with CA19–9. Br J Cancer 56: 495–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Koprowski H, Steplewski Z, Mitchell K, Herlyn M, Herlyn D, Fuhrer JP (1974) Colorectal carcinoma antigen detected by hybridoma antibodies. Som Cell Genet 5: 957–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lindholm L, HolmgrenJ, Svennerholm L, Fredman P, Nilsson O, Persson B, Myrvold H, Lagergrad T (1983) Monoclonal antibodies against gastrointestinal tumor-associated antigens isolated as monosialogangliosides. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immun 71: 178–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bast RC, Freeny M, Lazarus H, Nadler LM, Colvin RB, Knall RC (1981) Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Invest 68: 1331–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Metzgar RS, Rodriguez N, Fin OJ, Lan MS, Daasch VN, Fernsten PD, Meyers WC, Sindelar WF, Sandler RS, Seigler HF (1984) Detection of a pancreatic cancer-associated antigen (DU-PAN-2 antigen) in serum and ascites of patients with adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 5242–5246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Klug TL, Sattler MA, Colcher D, Schlom J (1986) Monoclonal antibody immunoradiometric assay for an antigenic determinant (CA72) on a novel pan-carcinoma antigen (TAG-72) Int J Cancer 38: 661–669Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Herlyn M, Steplewski Z, Herlyn D, Koprowski H (1979) Colorectal carcinoma-specific antigen: Detection by means of monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 1438–1442Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chung YS, Ho JJ, Kim YS, Tanaka H, Nakata B, Hiura A, Motoyoshi H, Satake K, Umeyama K (1987) The detection of human pancreatic cancer-associated antigen in the serum of cancer patients. Cancer 60: 1636–1643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yuan SZ, Ho JJ, Yuan M, Kim YS (1985) Human pancreatic cancer-associated antigens detected by murine monoclonal antibodies. Cancer Res 45: 6179–6187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Loor R, Kuriyama M, Bodziak MLM, Inaji H, Douglass HO Jr, Berjian R, Nicolai JJ, Tytgat GN, Chu TM (1984) Simultaneous evaluation of a pancreas-specific antigen and a pancreatic cancer-associated antigen in pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res 44: 3604–3607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gold DV, Hollingsworth P, Kremer T, Nelson D (1983) Identification of a human pancreatic duct tissue-specific antigen. Cancer Res 43: 235–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stenman UH, Huhtala ML, Koistinen R, Seppälä M (1982) Immunochemical demonstration of an ovarian cancer-associated urinary peptide. Int J Cancer 30: 53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kawa S, Oguchi H, Kobayashi T, Tokoo M, Furuta S, Kanai M, Homma T (1991) Elevated serum levels of Dupan-2 in pancreatic cancer patients negative for Lewis blood group phenotype. Br J Cancer 64: 899–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wallach MK, Brown AS, Rosato EF (1978) Serum fucose as a monitor for recurrent malignancy. J Surg Oncol 10: 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Leveson SH, Russo AJ, Douglas HO, Goldrosen MR, Holyoke ED (1978) Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma using the leucocyte adherence inhibition microassay. Br J Surg 65: 360Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moossa AR, Levin B (1981) The diagnosis of “early” pancreatic cancer. The University of Chicago experience. Cancer 47: 1688–1697Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gelder FB, Reese CJ, Moossa AR, Hall T, Hunter R (1978) Studies on the oncofetal antigen, POA. Cancer 42: 1635–1645Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Satake K (1991) Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Serological markers. Int J Pancreatol 9: 93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Satake K, Chung Y-S, Umeyama K, Takeuchi T, Kim YS (1991) The possibility of diagnosing small pancreatic cancer (less than 4.0 cm) by measuring various serum tumor markers. Cancer 68: 149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Frebourg T, Bercoff E, Manchon N, Senant J, Basuyau J-P, Breton P, Janvresse A, Brunelle P, Bourreille J (1988) The evaluation of CA 19–9 antigen level in the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 62: 2287–2290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tempero M, Takasaki H, Uchida E, Takiyama Y, Colcher D, Metzgar RS, Pour PM (1989) Co-expression of CA 19–9, DU-PAN-2, CAl25, and TAG-72 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 13: 89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Del Favero G, Fabris C, Panucci A, Basso D, Plebani M, Baccaglini U, Leandro G, Burlina A, Naccarato R (1986) Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19–9) and carcinoembryonic antigen ( CEA) in pancreatic cancer. Bull Cancer (Paris) 73: 251–255Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Satake K, Chung Y-S, Yokomatsu H, Nakata B, Sawada T, Nishiwaki H, Umeyama K (1991) Various tumor markers for small pancreatic cancer with special reference to the present status of pancreatic cancer in Japan and our experience over the past 2 years. Pancreas 6: 234–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Beretta E, Malesci A, Zerbi A, Mariani A, CarlucciGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    White TT, Allan BJ, Schilling JJ, Miyashita H (1985) Human pancreatic secretory protein profiles in pancreas cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 30: 200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    White TT, Allan BJ, Schilling JJ, Miyashita H (1983) Human pancreatic secretory protein profiles in the search for tumor markers. Dig Dis Sci 28: 792–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scheele GA (1981) Human pancreatic cancer: analysis of proteins contained in pancreatic juice by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Cancer 47: 1513–1515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rennel CL (1974) Diagnostic value of hypotonic duodenography. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nuc Med 121: 256–263Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shirley DV (1974) Hypotonic duodenography in suspected pancreatic disease. Br J Radiol 47: 437–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pollock D, Taylor KJ (1981) Ultrasound scanning in patients with clinical suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 47: 1662–1665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Robbens AH, Gerzof SG, Pugatch RS (1979) Newer imaging techniques for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol 6: 332–343Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Taylor KJ, Buchen PJ, Viscomi GN (1981) Ultrasonographic scanning of the pancreas: Prospective study of clinical results. Radiology 138: 211–213Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    DiMagno EP, Malagelada JR, Taylor WF, Go VLW (1977) A prospective comparison of current diagnostic tests for pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 297: 737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Savarino V, Mansi C, Bistofi L, Rentilin P, Celle G (1983) Failure of new diagnostic aids in improving detection of pancreatic cancer at a resectable stage. Dig Dis Sci 28: 1078–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Redman HC (1981) Standard radiologie diagnosis and CT scanning in pancreatic cancer. Cancer 47: 1656–1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Freeny PC (1989) Radiologie diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Radiol Clin North Am 27: 121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dreiling DA (1970) The early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol 6 [Suppl]: 115–122Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Endo Y, Mori T, Tamuta H (1974) Cytodiagnosis of pancreatic malignant tumors by aspiration under direct vision, using duodenal fiberscope. Gastroenterology 67: 944–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kameya S, Kuno N, Kasugai T (1981) The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by pancreatic juice cytology. Acta Cytol 25: 354–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Yamada T, Murohisa B, Muto Y, Okamato K, Doi K, Tsuchiya R (1984) Cytologic detection of small pancreaticoduodenal and biliary cancers in the early developmental stage. Acta Cytol 28: 435–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mithchell MK, Carney CN (1985) Cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 83: 171–176Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tatsuta M, Yamamura H, Yamamoto R, Okano Y, Takeshi M, Okuda S, Tamura H (1983) Significance of carcinoembryonic antigen levels and cytology of pure pancreatic juice in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 52: 1880–1885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Clouse ME, Gregg JA, Sedgwick CE (1975) Angiography vs pancreatography in diagnosis of carcinoma of the pancreas. Radiology 144: 605–610Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Feinberg SB, Screiber DR, Goodale R (1977) Comparison of ultrasound pancreatic scanning and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograms: A retrospective study. J Clin Ultrasound 5: 96–100Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nakano S, Horiguchi Y, Takeda T (1974) Comparative diagnostic value of endoscopic pancreatography and pancreatic function tests. Scan J Gastroenterol 9: 383–389Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Freeny PC, Ball TJ (1981) ERCP and PTC in evaluation of suspected pancreatic carcinoma-Diagnostic limitations and contemporary roles. Cancer 47: 1666–1678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Ohigashi H, Nakaizumi A, Uehara H, Wada A, Nagumo CT, Yamamoto R, Sasaki Y, Iwanaga T (1992) A new method of intraoperative cytodiagnosis for more precisely locating the occult neoplasms of the pancreas. Surgery 111: 294–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ferrucci JT, Wittenberg T, Sarno RH, Dreyfuss JR (1976) Fine needle transhepatic cholangiography: New approach to obstructive jaundice. AJR 127: 403–407Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Okuda K, Tanikawa K, Emura T (1974) Nonsurgical percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography diagnostic significance in medical problems of the liver. Am J Dig Dis 19: 21–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Pereiras R, Chiprut RO, Greenwald RA (1977) Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the “skinny” needle. Ann Intern Med 562–568Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ferrucci JT, Wittenberg J (1978) CT biopsy of abdominal tumors. Aids for lesion localization. Radiology 129: 739–744Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kline TS, Neal MS (1978) Needle aspiration biopsy: A critical appraisal-eight years and 3267 specimens later. JAMA 239: 36–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Yeh H (1981) Percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of intraabdominal lesions with ultrasound guidance. Am J Gastroenterol 75: 148–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kocjan G, Rode J, Lees WR (1989) Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls. J Clin Pathol 42: 341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Goodale RL, Gajl Peczalska K, Dressel T, Samuelson J (1981) Cytologic studies for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 47: 1652–1655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hovdenak N, Lees WR, Pereira J, Beilby JDW, Cotton PB (1982) Ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology in pancreatic cancer. Br Med J 285: 1183–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ferrucci JF Jr, Wittenberg J, Margolies MN, Carry RW (1979) Malignant seeding of the tract after thin-needle aspiration biopsy. Radiology 130: 345–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Smith FP, MacDonald JS, Schein PS (1980) Continuous seeding of pancreatic cancer by skinny-needle aspiration biopsy. Arch Intern Med 140: 855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weger AR, Glaser KS, Schwab G, Oefner D, Bodner E, Auer GU, Mikuz G (1991) Quantitative nuclear DNA content in fine needle aspirates of pancreatic cancer. Gut 32: 325–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Young NA, Villani MA, Khoury P, Naryshkin S (1991) Differential diagnosis of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 115: 571–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ishida M (1983) Peritoneoscopy and pancreas biopsy in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Gastrointest Endosc 29: 211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ishida H, Domzono T, Furukawa Y (1984) Laparoscopy and biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant intra-abdominal tumors. Endoscopy 16: 140–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Goldstein HM, Neiman HL, Bookstein JJ (1974) Angiography evaluation of pancreatic disease-A further appraisal. Radiology 112: 275–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rosch J, Keller FS (1981) Pancreatic arteriography, transhepatic pancreatic venography and pancreatic venous sampling in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 47: 1679–1684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tylen V, Arnesjo B (1973) Resectability and prognosis of carcinoma of the pancreas evaluated by angiography. Scand J Gastroenterol 8: 691–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Uden R (1976) Secretin and epinephrine combined in celiac angiography. Acta Radiol Diag 17: 17–40Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    MacGregor AHC, Hawkins IF Jr (1973) Selective pharmacodynamic angiography in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the pancreas. Surg Gynecol Obstet 137: 917–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Reichardt E, Lunderquist A, Tylen U (1978) Selective phlebography in carcinoma of the pancreas. Acta Radiol Diagn 19: 305–315Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Montz R, Klapdor R, Kremer B, Rothe B (1985) Immunoszintigraphie and SPECT bei Patienten mit Pankreaskarzinom. Nucl Med 24: 232–237Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Klöppel G (1986) Pathomorphology of pancreatic cancer: classification, histogenesis, localization, multifocal development, prognosis and differential diagnosis. In: Malfertheiner P, Ditschuneit H (eds) Diagnostic procedures in pancreatic disease. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Japan Pancreatic Society (to be published) General rules for cancer of the pancreas, 4th edn. Mizumoto R (ed) Kanchara Shuppan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kanai N, Nagaki S, Tanaka T (1987) Clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Acta Pathol Jpn 37: 1521–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hunterkoon M (1983) Oncocytic carcinoma of the pancreas. Cancer 51: 332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Pour PM, Permert J, Mogaki M, Kazakoff K. Endocrine aspects of exocrine cancer of the pancreas. Their patterns and suggested biological significance. Am J Clin Pathol 100: 223–230Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kashiwabara K, Nakajima T, Shinkai H, Fukuda T, Oono Y, Kurabayashi Y, Kojima T, Nagamachi Y (1991) A case of malignant duct-islet cell tumor of the pancreas. Immunohistochemical and cyto-fluorometric study. Acta Pathol Jpn 41:636— 176. Pour PM, Takasaki H, Büchler M (1987) Immuno-641 logic aspects of acute and chronic pancreatitis.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Frantz VK. Tumours of the pancreas (1959) Atlas Verh Dtsch Ges Path 71:255–265 of tumor pathology, Section VII-Fascicles 27 177. Itzkowitz S, Kjeldsen T, Friera A, Hakomori S-I,and 28. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Yang U-S, Kim YS (1991) Expression of Tn,Washington DC, pp 96–141 sialosyl Tn, and T antigens in human pancreas.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dawiskiba S, Pour PM, Stenram U, Sundler F, Gastroenterology 100:1691–1700 Andén-Sandberg fA (1992) Immunohistochemical 178. Kim YS, Itzkowitz SH, Yuan M, Chung Y-S,characterization of endocrine cells in experimental Satake K, Umeyama K, Hakomori S-I (1988) Le“exocrine pancreatic cancer in the Syrian golden and LeY antigen expression in human pancreatic hamster. Int J Pancreatol 11:97–104 cancer. Cancer Res 48: 475–482Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Satake K, Shim K, Sowa M, Umeyama K (1985) 179. Itai S, Nishikata J, Yoneda T, Ohmori K, Yamabe Electron microscopic studies of human pancreaticGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Arii S, Tobe T, Kannagi R (1991) Tissue adenocarcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 11:125 distribution of 2–3 and 2–6 sialyl Lewis A antigens 135 and significance of the ratio of two antigens for theGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sim K, Satake K, Sowa M, Umeyama K (1984) differential diagnosis of malignant and benign dis-Ultrastructural observations of human pancreatic orders of the digestive tract. Cancer 67:1576–1587 duct cell carcinoma. Nippon Geka Gakkai ZasshiGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Schuessler MH, Pintado S, Welt S, Real FX, Xu 85:338–345 M, Melamed MR, Lloyd KO, Oettgen HF (1991)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Pour PM, Parsa I, Hauser R (1987) Evidence for Blood group and blood group-related antigens in partial exocrine acinar differentiation in experi normal pancreas and pancreas cancer: enhanced mentally induced pancreatic ductal/ductular cell expression of precursor type 1, Tn and sialyl-Tn in tumors. Int J Pancreatol 2:47–58 pancreas cancer. Int J Cancer 47: 180–187Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kern HF, Rausch U, Mollenhauer J (1986) Fine 181. Takasaki H, Tempero MA, Uchida E, Büchler M,structure of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ness MJ, Burnett DA, Metzgar RS, Colcher D,Go VLW, Gardner JD, Brooks FP, Lebenthal E, Schlom J, Pour PM (1988) Comparative studies on DiMagno EP, Scheele GA (eds) The exocrine the expression of tumor-associated glycoprotein pancreas: Biology, pathobiology, and diseases. (TAG-72), CA19–9 and UD-PAN-2 in normal,Raven, New York, pp 637–647 benign and malignant pancreatic tissue. Int JGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Yamao K, Nakazawa S, Fujimoto M, Tsuda H, Cancer 42:681–686 Matsumoto K, Iwase T (1993) A mucous histo- 182.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lan MS, Bast RC Jr, Colnaghi MI, Knapp RC,chemical and immunohistochemical study of pre- Colcher D, Schlom J, Metzgar RS (1987) Co-cancerous and neoplastic lesions in the human expression of human cancer-associated epitopes on pancreas. Int J Pancreatol 14: 37–44Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    mucin molecules. Int J Cancer 39:68–72Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Klöppel G, Dreyer T, Lampe V, Kalthoff H, 183. Pour PM, Kazakoff K, Dulany K (1993) A newGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schmiegel WH, von Bülow M, Kern HF, Heitz PU multilabeling technique for simultaneous demon-(1984) Immunozytochemische Typisierung von stration of different islet cells in permanent slides.exokrinen Pankreastumoren and ihren Metastasen. Int J Pancreatol 13:139–142 Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 68: 104–107Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Klöppel G, Bosslet K, von Billow M, Kern HFGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pour PM, Burnett D. Uchida E (1985) Lectin (1984) Detection of different CEA epitopes in ductal binding affinities of induced pancreatic lesions in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas by monoclonal the hamster model. Carcinogenesis 6: 1775–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    antibodies (abstract) Dig Dis Sci 29:956Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Haglund C, Roberts PJ, Nordling S, Ekblom P 185. Klöppel G, Fitzgerald PJ (1986) Pathology of non-(1984) Expression of laminin in pancreatic neo endocrine pancreatic tumors. In: Go VLW, Gardner plasms and in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Surg JD, Brooks FP, Lebenthal E, DiMagno EP, Scheele Pathol 8:669–676 GA (eds) The exocrine pancreas: Biology, pathoGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pour PM, Tempero MA, Takasaki H, Uchida E, biology, and diseases. Raven, New York, pp 649-Takiyama Y, Burnett DA, Steplewski Z (1988) 674 Expression of blood-group related antigens ABH, 186.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Morohoshi T, Kanda M, Horle A, et al. (1987)Lewis A, Lewis B, Lewis X, Lewis Y and CA19–9 in Immunocytochemical markers of uncommon pan-pancreatic cancer cells in comparison with the creatic tumors. Cancer 59:739–747 patient’s blood group type. Cancer Res 48: 187.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kiyohara H, Egami H, Kako H, Shibata Y, Murata 5422–5426 K, Ohshima S, Sei K, Suko S, Kurano R, OgawaGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Itzkowitz SH, Yuan M, Ferrell LD, Ratcliffe RM, M (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of Chung Y-S, Satake K, Umeyama K, Jones RT, Group II phospholipase A2 in human pancreaticGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kim YS (1987) Cancer-associated alterations of carcinoma. Int J Pancreatol 13:49–57 blood group antigen expression in the human panGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ohta T, Nagakawa T, Tsukioka Y, Mori K, creas. J NCI 79: 425–433Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kayahara M, Kanno M, Ueno K, Miyazaki I, Terada T, Nakanuma Y (1992) Argyrophilic nuclear organizer region counts in exocrine pancreatic tumors. Int J Pancreatol 12: 201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Baisch H, Klöppel G, Reinke B (1990) DNA ploidy and cell-cycle analysis in pancreatic and ampullary carcinoma. Flow cytometric study of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Virchows Arch [A] 417: 145–150Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Yoshimura T, Manabe T, Suwa H, Imamura T, Wang Z, Ohshio G, Yamabe H, Matsumoto M, Ogasahara K, Takasan H (1993) Nuclear content as a prognostic predictor in carcinoma of the pancreas. Int J Pancreatol 14: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Sciallero S, Giaretti W, Geido E, Bonelli L, Zhankui L, Saccomanno S, Zeraschi E, Pugliese V (1993) DNA aneuploidy is an independent factor of poor prognosis in pancreatic and peripancreatic cancer. Int J Pancreatol 14: 21–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Allison DC, Bose KK, Hruban RH, Piantadosi S, Dooley WC, Boitnott JK, Cameron JL (1991) Pancreatic cancer cell DNA constant correlates with long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 214: 648–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Alanen KA, Joensuu H, Klemi PJ (1991) Letters to the editors, Virchows Arch [A] 419: 255–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Eskelinen M, Lipponen P, Collan Y, Marin S, Alhava E, Nordling S (1991) Relationship between DNA ploidy and survival in patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 6: 90–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Herrera M, van Heerden JA, Katzmann JA, Weiland LH, Nagorney DM, Ilstrup D (1992) Evaluation of DNA nuclear pattern as a prognostic determinant in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Ann Surg 215: 120–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Lipponen PK, Eskelinen MJ, Collan Y, Marin S, Alhava E (1990) Volume correlated mitotic index in human pancreatic cancer. Relation to histologic grade, clinical stage, and prognosis. Scan J Gastroenterol 251: 548–554Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Korc M, Chandrasekar B, Yamanaka Y, Friess H, Büchler M, Beger HG (1992) Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human pancreatic cancer is associated with concomitant increases in the levels of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha. J Clin Invest 90: 1352–1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ro J, North SM, Gallick GE, Hortobagyi GN, Gutterman JU, Blick M (1987) Amplified and overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptor gene in uncultured primary human breast carcinoma. Cancer Res 48: 161–164Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Sainsbury JRC, Sherbet GV, Farndon JR, Harris AL (1985) Epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors. Lancet i: 364–366Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Yamanaka Y, Onda M, Uchida E, Kobayashi T, Sasajima K, Tokunaga A, Yajiri T, Egami K, Asano G (1990) Immunohistochemical study on epidermal growth factor and its receptor in human pancreatic carcinoma. Jpn J Gastroenterol 87: 1544–1550Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hoorens A, Lemoine N, McLellan E, Morohoshi T, Kamisawa T, Heitz PU, Stamm B, Rüschoft J, Wiedenmann B, Klöppel G (1993) Pancreatic tumors with acinar cell differentiation: their histologic, immunocytochemical, ultrastructural and molecular biological spectrum. Am J Pathol 143: 685–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Barton CM, Hall PA, Hughes CM, Gullick WJ, Lemoine NR (1991) Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in human pancreatic cancer. J Pathol 163: 111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Wakita K, Ohyanagi H, Yamamoto K, Tokuhisa T, Saitoh Y (1992) Overexpression of c-Ki-ras and c-fos in human pancreatic carcinoma. Int J Pancreatol 11: 43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Smit THBMV, Boot JMA, Bos LJ (1988) K-ras codon 12 mutations occurs very frequently in pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Nucl Acids Res 10: 7773–7782Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Yanagisawa A, Kato Y, Ohtake K, Kitagawa T, Ohashi K, Hori M, Takagi K, Sugano H (1991) c-Ki-ras point mutations in ductectatic-type mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. Jpn J Cancer Res 82: 1057–1060Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Motojima K, Urano T, Nagata Y, Shiku H, Tsurifune T, Kanematsu T (1993) Detection of point mutations in the Kirsten-ras oncogene provides evidenace for the multicentricity of pancreatic carcinoma. Ann Surg 217: 138–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kato O, Kuno N, Kasugai T (1979) Pancreatic carcinoma difficult to differentiate from duodenal carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 71: 74–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Yamaguchi K, Tanaka M (1992) Groove pancreatitis masquerading as pancreatic carcinoma. Am J Surg 163: 312–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Yanagisawa, A Ohtake K, Ohashi K, Hori M, Kitagawa T, Sugano H, Kato Y (1993) Frequent cKi-ras oncogene activation in mucous cell hyperplasias of pancreas suffering from chronic inflammation. Cancer Res 53: 953–956Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Baylor SM, Berg JW (1973) Cross-classification and survival characteristics of 5000 cases of cancer of the pancreas. J Surg Oncol 5: 335–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Tannapfel A, Wittekind C, Hünefeld G (1992) Ductal adenocarcinoma ofthe pancreas. Histopathological features and prognosis. Int J Pancreatol 12: 145–152Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parviz M. Pour
    • 1
  • Yoichi Konishi
    • 2
  • Günter Klöppel
    • 3
  • Daniel S. Longnecker
    • 4
  1. 1.The Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer; Department of Pathology and MicrobiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Oncological Pathology, Cancer CenterNara Medical CollegeKashihara, NaraJapan
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Academy Hospital JetteFree University of BrusselsBrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.Department of PathologyDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations