Advertisement

The Seething Genetics of Health and the Evolution of Sex

  • William D. Hamilton

Abstract

It is well known that the adaptations that fit a species to be a colonist of newly opened habitats are not the same as those that fit one to persist in a mature community. In a transition from the one successful lifestyle to the other, fast growth and maximal production of uncared for offspring, which best increase descendance in uncrowded habitats, have to give place to slower growth and setting aside of material and energy for competition. This implies a range of social and antisocial activities which are mainly concerned with conspecifics. Some of the activities appropriate to a colonist are reduced or abandoned. For example, adaptations for dispersal though still needed [1] are usually focussed nearer at hand and changed in character [2]. Other activities have to be increased. Reproduction is through fewer, larger, better cared for offspring destined to contest for places in their environment just as their parents contested for them. The comparison of adaptation under the two regimes described—colonization, versus persistence in a developed community—summarize a field of evolutionary ecology that is often called “r- and K-selection”, r referring to the growth rate of population in ideal empty habitats and K to the limiting level of population that can be reached in crowded ones. However, obviously a much more complex picture is being projected in the changes instanced above than could be drawn directly from the logistic growth equation which was the original source of the “r” and “K” parameters referred to. The picture is indeed more complex even than is suggested in the formal treatments that later more properly integrated r and K into genetical selection theory (e.g., [3]). Nevertheless, reference to “r and K” has become for the time being a common usage, and, with reservations to be discussed later, its ideas still categorize fairly well a major trend of covariation that has been detected in various unrelated sets of species [4–6]. I will continue use of the r and K symbols and the idea in most of this paper but will mention some reservations at the end.

Keywords

Dung Beetle Adaptive Landscape Mutation Theory Good Mutation Soft Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hamilton WD, May RM (1977) Dispersal in stable habitats. Nature 269: 578–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roff DA (1986) The genetic basis of wing dimorphism in the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus and its relevance to the evolution of wing dimorphisms in insects. J Hered 57: 221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roughgarden J (1971) Density-dependent natural selection. Ecology 52: 453–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tinkle DW, Wilbur HM, Tilley SG (1970) Evolutionary strategies in lizard reproduction. Evolution 24: 55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cody ML (1971) Ecological aspects of avian reproduction. In: Farner DS, King JR (eds) Avian biology, vol I. Academic, London, pp 463–503Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gadgil M, Solbrig OT (1972) The concept of r- and K-selection: Evidence from wild flowers and some theoretical considerations. Am Naturalist 106: 14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Provine WB (1986) Sewall Wright and evolutionary biology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wallace B (1975) Hard and soft selection revisited. Evolution 29: 465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lomnicki A (1988) Population ecology of individuals. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Salisbury EJ (1942) The reproductive capacity of plants. Bell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamilton WD (1980) Sex versus non–sex versus parasites. Oikos 35: 282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karlin S, Campbell RB (1981) The existence of a protected polymorphism under conditions of soft as opposed to hard selection in a multi-deme population system. Am Naturalist 117: 262–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wills C (1978) Rank order selection is capable of maintaining all genetic polymorphisms. Genetics 89: 403–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gliddon C, Strobeck C (1975) Necessary and sufficient conditions for multiple-niche polymorphism in haploids. Am Naturalist 109: 233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feldman MW, Franklin IR, Thomson G (1973) Selection in complex genetic systems I: The symmetric equilibria of the three locus symmetric viability model. Genetics 76: 135–162Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wright S (1949) Adaptation and selection. In: Jepson GL, Simpson GG, Mayr E (eds) Genetics, palaeontology and evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 365– 3891Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clarke BC, O’Donald P (1964) Frequency dependant selection. J Hered 19: 201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clarke BC (1979) The evolution of genetic diversity. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 205:453– 474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gillespie JH, Turelli M (1989) Genotype-environment interactions and the maintenance of polygenic variation. Genetics 121: 129–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mitton JB (to be published) Theory and data pertinent to the relationship between heterozygosity and fitness. In: Thornhill NW, Shields WM (eds) The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hamilton WD (1990) Inbreeding in Egypt and in this book. In: Thornhill NW, Shields WM (eds) The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haldane JBS (1931) A mathematical theory of natural selection, part VIII: Metastable populations. Proc Camb Phil Soc 27: 137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wright S (1977) Evolution and the genetics of populations vol 3. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 452Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamilton WD, Axelrod R, Tanese, R (1990) Sexual reproduction as an adaptation to resist parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3566–3573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    May RM, Anderson RM (1983) Epidemiology and genetics in the correlation of parasites and hosts. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 219: 281–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nee S (1989) Antagonistic coevolution and the evolution of genotypic randomisation. J Theor Biol 140: 499–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Treisman M (1976) The evolution of sexual reproduction: A model which assumes individual selection. J Theor Biol 60: 421–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manning JT (1984) Males and the advantage of sex. J Theor Biol 108: 215–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kondrashov AS (1988) Deleterious mutations and the evolution of sexual reproduction. Nature 336: 435–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamilton WD, Zuk M (1982) Heritable true fitness and bright birds: A role for parasites? Science 218: 384–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hausfater G, Thornhill R (eds) Symposium: Parasites and sexual selection. Am Zool 30: 225–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nothel H (1987) Adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster populations to high mutation pressure: Evolutionary adjustment of mutation rates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:1045– 1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nunney L (1989) The maintenance of sex by group selection. Evolution 43: 245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thompson V (1976) Does sex accelerate evolution? Evol Theory 1: 131–156Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bell G (1982) The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hill RE, Hastie ND (1987) Accelerated evolution in the reactive centre regions of serine protease inhibitors. Nature 326: 96–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laskowski M Jr, Kato I, Ardelt W, Cook J, Denton A, Empie MW, Kohr WJ, Park SJ, Parks K, Schatsley BL, Schoenberger OL, Tashiro M, Vichot G, Whatley HE, Wieczorek A, Wieczorek M (1987) Ovomucoid third domains from 100 avian species: Isolation, sequences, and hypervariability of enzyme-inhibitor contact residues. Biochemistry 26: 202–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams GC (1975) Sex in evolution. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maynard Smith J (1978) The evolution of sex. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamilton WD (1986) Instability and cycling of two competing hosts with two parasites. In: Karlin S, Nevo E (eds) Evolutionary processes and theory. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Frank SA (to be published) Spatial variation in coevolutionary dynamics. Am NaturalistGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hillis D (to be published) Co-evolving parasites improve simulated evolution in an optimisation procedure. Physica DGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Holland JH (1975) Adaptation in natural and artificial systems. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wright S (1932) The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and selection in evolution. Proceedings of the sixth international congress on genetics 1: 356–366Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tanese R (1987) Parallel genetic algorithms for a hypercube. In: Genetic algorithms and their applications: Proceedings of the second international congress on genetic algorithms, pp 177–183Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sumida BH, Houston AE, McNamara JM, Hamilton WD (1990) Genetic algorithms and learning. J Theor Biol 147: 59–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    O’Brien SJ, Evermann JF (1988) Interactive influence of infectious disease and genetic diversity in natural populations. Tree 3: 254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    CrowJF, Kimura M (1970) An introduction to population genetics theory. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Church AH (1919) Thalassiophyta and the subaerial transmigration. Oxford Botanical Memoirs 3, Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Corner EJH (1964) The life of plants. Weidenfield and Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Carlquist S (1966) Wood anatomy of Compositae: A summary with comments on factors controlling wood evolution. Aliso 6: 25–44Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dixon AFG, Holman J, Kindlemann P, Lips J (1985) Why are there so few species of aphids, especially in the tropics? Am Naturalist 129: 580–592Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Becker P, Lee LW, Rothman ED, Hamilton WD (1985) Seed predation and the coexistence of tree species: Hubbell’s models revisited. Oikos 44: 382–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hamilton WD, Henderson PA, Moran NA (1981) Fluctuation of environment and coevolved antagonist polymorphism as factors in the maintenance of sex. In: Alexander RD, Tinkle DW (eds) Natural selection and social behaviour: Recent research and theory. Chiron, New York, pp 363–381Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Daly M, Wilson M (1983) Sex, evolution, and behaviour, 2nd ed. Willard Grant, BostonGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smith RL (1984) Sperm competition and the evolution of animal mating systems. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Low B (1987) Pathogen stress and polygyny in humans. In: Betzig LL, Borgerhof Mulder M, Turke PW (eds) Human reproductive behavior: A Darwinian perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Low B (1990) Parasite virulence in relation to mating system structure in humans. Am Zoo 30: 325–339Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hughes AL (1988) Evolution and human kinship. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Borgerhof Mulder M (1989) Marital status and reproductive performance in Kipsigis women: Re-evaluating the polygyny-fertility hypothesis. Population Studies 43:285– 304Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Curtsinger JW, Heisler IL (1990) On the consistency of sexy son models: A reply to Kirkpatrick. Am Naturalist 134: 979–981Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hamilton WD (1990) Mate choice near or far. Am Zool 30: 341–352Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Halvorsen O (1986) Epidemiology of reindeer parasites. Parasitol Today 2: 334–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Geist V (1978) Life strategies, human evolution, environmental design: Towards a biological theory of health. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cavalli–Sforza LL, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Mountain J (1988) Reconstruction of human evolution: Bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6002–6006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rushton JP (1987) Toward a theory of human multiple birthing: Sociobiology and r/K reproductive strategies. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 36: 289–296Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Taylor VA (1980) Coexistence of two species of Ptinella Motulsky (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) and the significance of their adapatation to different temperature ranges. Ecol Ent 5: 397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oliver JH Jr (1971) Parthenogenesis in mites and ticks (Arachnida: Acari). Am Zool 11: 283–299Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kinzelbach R (1971) Strepsiptera (Facherfluger). Handbuch Zool 4 (2): 1–68Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Halffeter G, Matthews EG (1966) The natural history of dung beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae ( Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Folia Entomol Mex 12–14: 1–312Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Halffeter G, Edmonds EG (1982) The nesting behavior of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae). An ecological and evolutive approach. Instituto de Ecologia, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stearns SC (1977) The evolution of life history traits. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 8: 145–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Grime JP (1979) Plant strategies and vegetation processes. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sade DS (1972) A longitudinal study of rhesus monkeys. In: Tuttle R (ed) Functional and evolutionary biology of Primates. Aldine-Atherton, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chepko-Sade BD, Sade DS (1979) Patterns of group splitting within matrilineal kinship groups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5: 167–186Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Olivier TJ, Ober C, Buettner-Janusch J, Sade DS (1981) Genetic differentiation among matrilines in social groups of rhesus monkeys. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8: 279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chagnon NA (1975) Genealogy, solidarity, and relatedness: Limits to local group size and patterns of fissioning in an expanding population. Yearbook of physical anthropology 19: 95–110Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Thornhill NW (to be published) Human inbreeding. In: Thornhill NW, Shields WM (eds) The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fisher RA (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • William D. Hamilton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations