Advertisement

Adaptation in Students with Down Syndrome: An Experimental Study on the Trainability of Strength and Power

  • Otto J. Schantz
Conference paper

Abstract

Based on an ecological model of adaptation, the development of physical strength and power is evaluated as an educational objective for mentally retarded persons with Down syndrome (DS) using the approach of the theory of sports training. The purpose of this study was to compare different kinds of strength and power of students with DS and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) peers without DS, and to compare and evaluate the feasibility and effects of strength training in school in these 2 groups. 115 students (CA 12 to 18) participated in this experiment, which was designed to have a high ecological validity. The results show differences in strength and power between the 2 groups, depending on sex and the kind of skill. Similar progress was noted in both groups; however, differences in some tasks diminished significantly between the 2 samples. The implications for curriculum development are discussed.

Keywords

Down Syndrome Knee Extension Biomechanical Test Strength Training Program Explosive Power 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Henderson SE (1985) Motor skill development. In: Lane D, Stratford B (eds) Current approaches to Down syndrome. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, London, pp 187–218Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Henderson SE (1986) Some aspects of the development of motor control in Down’s syndrome. In: Whiting, HTA, Wade MG (eds) Themes in motor development. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 69–92Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reid G (1985) Physical activity programming, in: Lane D, Stratford B (eds) Current approaches to Down syndrome. London, pp 219–241Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Block MR (1991) Motor development in children with Down syndrome: A review of the literature. APAQ 8:179–209Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nordgren B (1970) Physical capabilities in a group of mentally retarded adults. Scand J Rehabil Med: pp 125–132Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henderson SE, Morris J, Ray S (1981) Performance of down’s syndrome and other retarded children on the Cratty Gross-Motor-Test. Am J Mental Defic 85: pp 4:416–424Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davis WE, Kelso JAS (1982) Analysis of “invariant characteristics” in the motor control of Down syndrome and normal subjects. J Motor Behav 14:194–212Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis WE, Sinning WE (1987) Muscle stiffness in Down syndrome and other mentally handicapped subjects. A research note. J Motor Behav 19:103–144Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morris AF, Vaughan, SE, Vaccaro P (1982) Measurement of neuromuscular tone and strength in Down syndrome children. J Mental Defic Res 26:41–46Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rarick GL (1981) Die motorische Leistungsfähigkeit geistig behinderter Kinder. In: Rieder H, Buttendorf T, Höss, H (eds) Förderung der Motorik geistig Behinderter. Berlin, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bauer A, Pellens C, Van der Schoot P (1981) Dokumentation und Bericht zum Stand der Forschung im Bereich Motorik und Sport bei geistig Retardierten. In: Jochheim K-A, Van der Schoot P (eds) Behindertensport und Rehabilitation. Teil I: Psychisch Behinderte, Geistig Retardierte. Schorndorf, pp 55–466Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wessel JA, Vogel PG, Knowles CJ (1977) Studies related to moderately (trainable) persons. In: Aahper (ed) The best of challenge, vol 3, pp 104–108Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schantz O (1990) Konditionelle Adaptationsfähigkeit geistig behinderter Schüler. Eine empirische Untersuchung über die Ausprägung und Trainierbarkeit ausgewählter sportmethodischer und sportbiomechanischer Kraftparameter von Sonderschülern. Doc diss, MainzGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weber RC (1985) Effects of strength development training programs for Down’s Syndrome adolescents. Doc diss, University of Utah, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skrobak-Kaczynski J, Vavik T (1980) Fysisk arbeidskapasitet og dens trenbarhet hos personer med Down’s syndrom (mongolisme). In: Den norske laegeforening 100:(19/21):1210–1213Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmidtbleicher D, Baumann W (1987) Kraft. In: Beyer E (ed) Wörterbuch der Sportwissenschaft. Schorndorf, pp 347–348Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Londeree BR, Johnson LE (1974) Motor fitness of TMR v. EMR and normal children. Med Sci Sports 6 (4):247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oseland DJ (1980) Physical fitness comparison between Down’s Syndrome students and moderately mentally impaired students. Master’s thesis, Illinois State University, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chiva M, Rutschmann Y (1979) L’étiologie de la débilité mentale. In: Zazzo R (ed) Les débilités mentales. Paris, pp 87–148Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cronk CE, Chumela WC, Roche AF (1985) Assessment of overweight children with Trisomie 21. Am J Mental Defic 89:433–436Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kral P (1972) Motor characteristics and development of retarded children: successful experience. Educ Training Ment Retard 7 (1):14–21Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Burwitz L, Daggett A, Harrison PW, Davies B (1978) Cognition and gross motor performance in ESN children. Am Correc Ther J 32(4):123–126Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schantz O (1985) Quelques aspects concernant l’évaluation de la condition physique des handicapés mentaux. In: CTNERHI (ed) Corps, mouvement, déficience mentale, société. Paris, pp 197–200Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schantz O (1991) Adaptation in mentally retarded compared to non-retarded persons. 8th International ISAPA Symposium. MiamiGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Katsimpalis TP (1968) The effect of isometric exercise on the educable mentally retarded. Doc diss, Colorado State College, GreeleyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto J. Schantz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations