Adapted Physical Education Programs for Mentally Retarded Children

  • Gudrun Doll-Tepper
Conference paper


One of the key issues in current research and in practical work in adapted physical activity/education for children with mental retardation focuses on the value of integrative settings. Most recent projects in this area discuss aspects of social integration, motivation, self-determination, and indepdendent living. The so-called normalization principle has addressed the situation and needs of persons with an intellectual disability and has stressed the importance of participation in the mainstream of society. Sports and recreational activities play an important role in the lives of many people. Persons with mental retardation should be given opportunities to participate in games and sports on all levels of performance. Different sports organizations such as Special Olympics International and INAS-FMH present opportunities to participate in international sports events. National organizations are increasingly involved in the development of various sports programs. In addition to leisure activities, different forms of rehabilitative therapeutic activities are being offered aiming at an improvement of the overall situation of the individual. Professionals in physical education and sports as well as in other related fields are facing changes and challenges concerning the inclusion of persons with mental retardation into all areas of life. This study presents current developments and trends in physical activity and sport for these individuals.


Physical Activity Mental Retardation Physical Education Intellectual Disability Sport Club 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Doll-Tepper G (1990) Controversies and current tendencies in physical education and sport for the mentally retarded: An international comparison. In: Vermeer A (ed) Motor development, adapted physical activity and mental retardation. Karger, Basel, pp 78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nirje B (1985) The basis and logio of the normalization principle. Aust NZJ Dev Disab 11:65–68Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nirje B (1992) The normalization principle papers, Uppsala University, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolfensberger W (1983) Social role valorization: A new term for the principle of normalization. Ment Retard 21:234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vermeer A (1988) Der Einfluß von Sport auf persönliche Kompetenz und soziale Stellung von geistig Behinderten. Motorik 11:17–23Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hahn M (1981) Behinderung als soziale Abhängigkeit. Reinhardt, GammertingenGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kiphard EJ (1979) Motopädagogik, modernes lernen, DortmundGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doll-Tepper G (1989) Children with special needs—Motodiagnostic test procedures and Kiphard’s mototherapeutic approach. Adapt Phys Activity Quart 6:170–175Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eichstaedt C, Lavay B (1992) Physical activity for individuals with mental retardation—Infancy through adulthood. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doll-Tepper G, Schmidt-Gotz E, Lienert C, Döen U, Hecker R (1993) Attitudes of students, teachers and coaches towards the integration of persons with a disability into physical education and sport. Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft, CologneGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gudrun Doll-Tepper

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations