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Electromyographic Characteristics of the Learning Process of Walking in Normal Infants and Children

  • Kayoko Okamoto
  • Tsutomu Okamoto
  • Hideaki Yamashita
  • Ryokei Ogawa
  • Hiromi Tsutsumi
  • Emi Okamoto
  • Hirotake Maruyama
  • Yasuhiko Tokuhara
  • Nobuyuki Kazai
  • Yukihiro Goto

Abstract

To determine the electromyographic characteristrics of normal infant walking, we studied 10 approximately one-year-old infants who were learning to walk. We examined the functional mechanisms of their leg muscles from the initial period of learning to walk through the transitional period to the adult walking pattern. The co-contraction of the antagonistic leg muscles, which indicated a lack of stable equilibrium, seemed to characterize the onset of independent walking around 12 months after birth. The period of transition to the child walking pattern, i.e., comparatively stable walking with the body inclined forward, seemed to take place around 2 or 3 months after the infant had learned to walk. The period of transition to the adult walking pattern, characterized by active motions of lifting the heel with the body erect, appeared to start around the end of the child’s second year of life.

Keywords

Tibialis Anterior Stance Phase Biceps Femoris Swing Phase Rectus Abdominis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Okamoto T, Kumamoto M (1972) Electromyographic study of the learning process of walking in infants. Electromyography 12:149–158Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Okamoto T, Goto Y (1985) Human infant pre-independent and independent walking. In: Kondo S (ed) Primate morphophysiology, locomotor analyses and human bipedalism. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 59–79Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kayoko Okamoto
  • Tsutomu Okamoto
  • Hideaki Yamashita
  • Ryokei Ogawa
  • Hiromi Tsutsumi
  • Emi Okamoto
  • Hirotake Maruyama
  • Yasuhiko Tokuhara
  • Nobuyuki Kazai
  • Yukihiro Goto

There are no affiliations available

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