Advertisement

Normal and Abnormal Development of Posture Control in Children

  • Marjorie H. Woollacott
Conference paper

Abstract

The development of balance control in children is approached from a systems perspective in which balance is seen as an emergent skill, with critical neural or musculoskeletal components identified as rate-limiting and thus pushing the system to a new control level when these components mature. The emergence of postural control is characterized by the development of rules which relate sensory inputs reporting the body’s position in space to motor actions which control the body’s position. Adaptive capabilities, which allow the child to modify sensory and motor strategies to changing task and environmental conditions, appear to develop later. Children with developmental delays and dysfunctions, such as Down syndrome and cerebral palsy, show delayed development of postural responses and additional problems associated with muscle response timing, organization (including onset latency delays), and sensory organization capabilities. Each disorder shows a specific constellation of motor problems.

Keywords

Cerebral Palsy Down Syndrome Postural Control Postural Response Balance Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Woollacott M, Shumway-Cook A, Williams H (1989) The development of posture and balance control. In: Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A (eds) Development of posture and gait across the life span. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 77–96Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prechtl HFR (1986) Prenatal motor development. In: Wade MC, Whiting HTA (eds) Motor development in children: aspects of coordination and control. Martinus Nighoff, Dordrecht, pp 53–64Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woollacott M, Debu B, Mowatt M (1987) Neuromuscular control of posture in the infant and child: is vision dominant? J Motor Behav 19:167–186Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roncesvalles NC, Jensen J (1993) The expression of weight-bearing ability in infants between four and seven months of age. NASPSPA Society AbstractsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nashner LM, Woollacott MH (1979) The organization of rapid postural adjustments of standing humans: an experimental-conceptual model. In: Talbot RE, Humphrey DR (eds) Posture and movement. Raven, New York, pp 243–257Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woollacott MH, Sveistrup H (1992) Changes in the sequencing and timing of muscle response coordination associated with developmental transitions in balance abilities. Hum Movement Sci 11:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Forssberg H, Nashner L (1982) Ontogenetic development of postural control in man: adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance. J Neurosci 2:545–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott M (1985) The growth of stability: postural control from a developmental perspective, J Motor Behav 17:13–147Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shunway-Cook A (1989) Equilibrium deficits in children. In: Woollacott M, Shumway-Cook A (eds) The development of posture and gait across the lifespan. University of South Carolina Press, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nashner L, Shumway-Cook A, Marin O (1983) Stance posture control in selected groups of children with cerebral palsy: Deficits in sensory organization and muscular coordination. Exp Brain Res 49:393–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott M (1985) Dynamics of postural control in the child with Down syndrome. Physical Therapy 65:1315–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williams H, Woollacott MH (1993) Speed, consistency, and organization of automatic postural responses in clumsy and normal children. J Motor Behav (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjorie H. Woollacott

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations