Different Forms of Body Activity as Therapeutical Concepts in Osteopenia

  • M. Hartard
  • P. Haber
  • D. Ilieva
  • E. Preisinger
  • M. Quittan
  • G. Seidl
  • J. Huber
  • R. Filadoro
  • D. Jeschke
Conference paper


The effects of two different forms of body activity on bone density of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–4) and the left hip (neck) were observed in a group of 39 women (age 50 and over) with osteopenia. For 20 weeks over a six-month period, 16 women engaged in systematic weight training (T), 8 followed a program of therapeutic gymnastics (G), and 15 served as controls (C). Bone density was measured using DEXA before and after the observation period. In groups G and C, the extent of bone density loss was approximately the same. A significant bone density loss did not occur in group T. Therefore, in this study, systematic weight training was the only form of therapy that was able to maintain bone mass density of the lumbar vertebrae and hip in women with osteopenia.


Bone Mineral Density Bone Density Lumbar Vertebra Body Activity Training Load 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chirschilles EA, Butler CD, Davis CS, Wallace RB (1991) A model of lifetime osteoporosis impact. Arch Intern Med 151:2026–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Le Blanc A, Schneider V (1991) Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone? Ext Gerontol 26:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dalsky GP (1989) The role of exercise in the prevention of osteoporosis. Comprehensive Therapy 15(9):30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prince RL, Smith M, Dick IM, Price RI, Webb PG, Henderson NK, Harris MM (1991) Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis—a comparative study of exercise, calcium supplementation, and hormone replacement therapy. N Engl J Med 325:1189–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aloia JF, Vaswania N, Yeh JK, Cohn St. H (1988) Premenopausal bone mass is related to physical activity. Arch Intern Med 148:121–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beverly MC, Rider TA, Evans MJ, Smith R (1989) Local bone mineral response to brief exercise that stresses the skeleton. BMJ 299:233–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gleeson PB, Protas EJ, LeBlanc AD, Schneider VS, Evans HJ (1990) The effects of weight lifting on bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 5(2):153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dilsen G, Berker C, Oral A, Varan G (1989) The role of physical exercise in prevention and managment of osteoporosis. Clin Rheum 8(2):70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Block JE, Smith R, Friedlander A, Genant HK (1989) Preventing osteoporosis with exercise: A review with emphasis on methodology. Med Hypotheses 30:9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chow R, Harrison JE, Notarius C (1987) Effect of two randomised exercise programmes on bone mass of healthy postmenopausal women. BMJ 295:1441–1444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge St. J (1988) Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 108(6):824–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krolner B, Toft B, Nielsen SP, Tondevold E (1983) Physical exercise as prophylaxis against involutional vertebral bone loss: A controlled trial. Clin Sci 64:541–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Simkins A, Ayalon J, Leichter I (1987) Increased trabecular bone density due to bone-loading exercise in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Calcif Tissue Int 40:56–63Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schultheis L (1991) The mechanical control system of bone in weightless spaceflight and in aging. Exp Gerontol 26:203–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Colletti LA, Edwards J, Gordon L, Shary J, Bell NH (1989) The effects of muscle-building exercise on bone mineral density of the radius, spine, and hip in young men. Calcif Tissue Int 45:12–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schoutens A, Laurent E, Poortmans JR (1989) Effects of inactivity and exercise on bone. Sports Med 7:71–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Suominen H (1988) Physical activity and bone. Ann Chir Gyn 77:184–188Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wahlen RT, Cater DR, Steel CR (1987) The relationship between physical activity and bone density. Trans Orthop Res Soc 12:464–467Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frost HM (1989) Transient-steady state phenomena in microdamage physiology: A proposed algorithm for lamellar bone. Calcif Tissue Int 44:367–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Viceconti M, Scireg A (1990) A generalized procedure for predicting bone mass regulation by mechanical strain. Calcif Tissue Int 47:396–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carter CR (1987) Mechanical loading history and skeletal biology. J Biomech 20(11, 12):1095–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shangold MM (1990) Exercise in menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 75[Suppl IV]:53–58Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lanyon LE, Rubin CT (1984) Static vs dynamic loads as an influence on bone remodelling. J Biomech 12(17):897–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lanyon LE (1987) Functional strain in bone tissue as an objective, and controlling stimulus for adaptive bone remodeling. J Biomech 20(11/12): 1083–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Margulies JY, Simkin A, Leichter I, Bivas A, Steinberg R, Giladi M, Stein M, Kashtan H, Milgrom C (1986) Effect of intense physical activity on the bone mineral content in the lower limbs of young adults. J Bone Joint Surgi 68A(7): 1090–1093Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sinaki M, Wahner HW, Offord KP, Hodgson St. F (1989) Efficacy of nonload-ing exercise in prevention of vertebral bone loss in postmenopausal women: A controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 64:762–769PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Hartard
  • P. Haber
  • D. Ilieva
  • E. Preisinger
  • M. Quittan
  • G. Seidl
  • J. Huber
  • R. Filadoro
  • D. Jeschke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations