Cervical Lymph Node Metastases in Thoracic Esophageal Cancer and Their Prognostic Role
It is well known that nodal metastasis of the thoracic esophageal cancer occur not only in the mediastinum and abdomen but also in the neck. Therefore, a comprehensive radical operation for the tumor should include a three-field dissection which has been discussed and performed for thoracic esophageal cancer since the 1980s [1, 2]; however, there is no general consensus about its advantages. Of note is that thoracic esophageal cancer with cervical lymph nodal involvement is defined as M1 and classified into stage IV according to the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM) classification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), 1987 .
KeywordsEsophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Thoracic Esophagus Thoracic Esophageal Cancer Thoracic Esophageal Carcinoma
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Onoda S, Kouzu T, Okuyama K, et al (1989) Benefits and risks associated with dissection of three-regional lymph nodes (bilateral cervical, thoracic, and abdominal) in thoracic esophageal carcinoma. J Jpn Surg Soc 90: 1619–22Google Scholar
- 2.Sasaki K, Tanaka Y, Ueki H, et al (1989) The significance of the extensive systematic lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma. J Jpn Surg Soc 90: 1605–08Google Scholar
- 3.Hermanek P, Sobin LH (1987) UICC international union against cancer, TNM classification of malignant tumors, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 40–42Google Scholar
- 5.Ide H, Hanyu F, Murata Y, Kobayashi A, Yamada A, Kobayashi S (1990) Extended dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer based on preoperative staging. In: Ferguson MK, Little AG, Skinner DB (eds) Diseases of the esophagus, vol 1, malignant disease. Futura New York, pp 177–86Google Scholar
- 6.Ando N, Shinozawa Y, Kikunaga H, et al (1989) An assessment of extended lymphadenectomy including cervical node dissection for cancer of the thoracic esophagus. J Jpn Surg Soc 90: 1616–18Google Scholar
- 7.Fujita H, Kakegawa T, Yamana H, et al (1989) Cervicothoracic abdominal lymph node dissection for carcinoma in the thoracic esophagus. J Jpn Surg Soc 90: 1623–25Google Scholar
- 8.Tsurumaru M, Akiyama H, Udagawa H, Ono Y, Watanabe G, Suzuki M (1989) Evaluation of the collo-thoraco-abdominal dissection for the intrathoracic esophageal carcinoma. J Jpn Surg Soc 90: 1612–15Google Scholar