Early Carcinoma of the Esophagus
Early esophageal cancer first attracted attention in 1966. Yamagata discovered a superficial cancer by cytology, and Nakayama accurately diagnosed a polypoid cancer with endoscopy. Both detected cases underwent operation. Following this, many reports were made on radiologic examinations [1–3], on endoscopic examinations [4, 5], and on cytology [6–8]. Much discussion has followed on the concepts of early esophageal cancer and the definition thereof. In Japan, the definition of early esophageal cancer  is a cancer located within the submucosa and without metastasis. From a clinical standpoint, a cancer located within the submucosa, regardless of metastasis, is defined as a superficial cancer. In accordance with this definition, diagnosis and treatment on early esophageal cancer, including superfical cancer, in Japan will be presented. Particularly, the studies on diagnosis and treatment methods in our department will be discussed.
KeywordsEsophageal Cancer Esophageal Carcinoma Early Carcinoma Brushing Cytology Esophageal Symptom
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